1. What happened at Monte Verde?
Migration is likely the main occurrence due to a Great Drought between 1276 and 1299 and a combination of land carrying capacity, which is normal for SW populations. Dendrochronology was used as a way to date this drought by analysis of the tree rings left.
2. What do we know about Hohokam from Snaketown?
Snaketown provides evidence of maize agriculture and foraged foods, located in an agriculturally beneficial region near the Gila and Salt rivers coming together, ball courts were erected, and there may have been ceremonial purposes to their platform mounds made from adobe and earth. Turquoise artifacts, feathers, and shells indicate trade with other regions. Flooding events may have been the leading cause to the Hohokam collapse due to destruction of irrigation canals.
3. Discuss the transition between Basketmaker II and the basketmaker III with regards to structures:
Basketmaker II structures are often associated with pit houses for residential seasonal mobility. These pit houses had wide variability, large, deep, and shallow, basin shaped forms. They were made from a variety of materials including logs and rocks. Circular to oval in shape, and entryways faced south to east. Fire pits in the center of the house and most were out in the open, with some occasionally in rock shelters. Basketmaker III saw a continuation of these traits with an increase in village life indicated through population increases and larger villages, and the communal gathering places often believed to be Kivas.
4. What is important about Chaco that causes it to often be referred to as a phenomenon?
Unique developments for the southwest occurred with the Chaco Canyon region of northwest New Mexico, including the great houses, roads, and exchange items. Great houses such as Pueblo Bonito stood over 5 stories high and built by the Anasazi. Also included stable trade links indicated through exotic items, and their own dominant role in processing turquoise, cylindrical vases, human effigy vessels, incense burners, copper bells, sea-shell trumpets, painted tablets and wooden effigies.
5. What are the T-Shaped Doorways?
Commonly found at Mesa Verde, some at Chaco Canyon but not many, theories for their existence include entrances for ceremonial chambers, entrances for shaman's quarters, alignment with the cosmos, and potential use as spirit entrances.
Discuss what the transition from the Paleoindian to the Archaic looks like (Archaeologically) in the Southwest.
The transition from the Paleoindian to the Archaic in the Southwest, archaeologically, looks like a shift from a Clovis and Folsom stone tool technology, small dispersed populations, with mammoths as a major staple. Into the archaic of a continuation of widely dispersed resources and populations, much more diverse projectile points; including side-notched, corner-notched, and barbed points, indicating new hunting strategies. Rabbits and seeds and broad spectrum adaption to small game and plant resources occurs. There were also technological advances including digging sticks, serrated stone, ground stones, mans and metates, and storage baskets.
How has dendrochronology been used in the Southwest?
Dendrochronology has been used in the Southwest to put the present in a proper historical context, to better understand current environmental processes and conditions, and it is used to improve understanding upon environmental disasters (Drought...) that may occur in the future. This allows for archaeological specimens such as Pueblo Bonito to gain a more accurate date for the site as well and possibly determine causes for abandonment, such as a horrific drought which would be indicated through the tree rings.
Why is Pottery important in understanding the Southwest?
Pottery is important in understanding the Southwest because pottery is most commonly found artifact at most agricultural sites, due to its many purposes. Potsherds (Pottery Fragments) are very durable and preserve better than many ancient materials. The most important factor, especially for the Southwest, is that ceramics can serve as indicators to specific time periods and show trade, where it was made through the materials in the pottery, and some aspects of the daily lives of past peoples.
Summarize and describe the SW transition to agriculture. What are some theories on why agriculture took hold in the southwest?
The Southwest transition to agriculture began in the Late Archaic (3500-1750 BP) when hunter gatherers began incorporating the cultivation of crops, with Maize first being planted in the Southwest between 4000 to 3500BP. There is also evidence of early water control and terracing. Squash was acquired at the same time as corn and common beans arrived by 500 BC, establishing the three sisters in the SW.
Some reasons include 1. Increased numbers of people restricted H/G mobility increasing subsistence risk. 3. Immigrant peoples brought agriculture to the Southwest. 2. Acquiring crops that were domesticated elsewhere presented opportunities never had before. 4. Maize agriculture spread when genetic changes in the plant allowed it to survive in the Southwest.
What are the key characteristics of the Adena complex? How were burial mounds constructed? What specific artifacts show up in the Adena Burial Mounds?
Key characteristics of the Adena Complex include mound building located in the Central and Upper Ohio River Valley as a form of mortuary-ceremonial complex. Adena burial mounds were constructed beginning with single person burials in a shallow pit and lined with bark. Large amounts of earth were moved by the basket-load and multiple layers of burials occurred at the mound leading to a gradual increase in mound size. Specific artifacts showing up at Adena burial Mounds include carved pipes, pottery made from coiling, different forms or projectile points including an adena one, and obsidian, and other nonlocal stones, as well as, copper gorgets, and shells.
What kind of artifacts characterize the Hopewell? What were they made out of?
Some of the artifacts that characterize the Hopewell include Copper: ear spools, artificial noses, beads, panpipes, relief drawings, breastplates, coverings for wooden artifacts, and ax heads. Mica: laminated material used to carefully be seperated into sheets and made into shapes such as serpants, animal claws, human heads and hands..
Obsidian and Ground Stone: Artifacts included knives/blades, projectile points (some were for ritual purposes and not actual use due to brittleness) and the platform pipe often depicting a range of animals. Serpant mound is one of the Hopewells main Effigy Mounds!
Explain the characteristics of the Mississippian culture, including the Southeastern Ceremonial complex?
The major characteristics of the Mississippian culture include an increase in agriculturea dependency, highly organized and ranked societies developed (even chiefdoms), platform mounds developed (which are earten temple-mounds like... ), and characteristic artifacts and iconography including shell-tempered pottery, and artifacts with complex motifs such as crosses (Greek and Swastika), Sun circles (rayed and scalloped) Bi-lobed arrows, forked eye, open eye, barred oval, hand and eye, and death motifs (human skull, femur, hand...). The Southeastern Ceremonial Comples includes these recognizable motifs (Hand and Eye and the sun circle, and also God-Animal representations including birds, rattlesnakes, bobcats, panthers, deer, and spides. The artifcats included gorgets, conch pendants, ear spools, axes, maces/batons, effigy pipes, stone disks and more.
Where does Mica, Copper, and Obsidian come from?
Mica comes from Southwest North Carolina
Copper comes from: Lake Superior area (Kewanaw Peninsula and Isle Royale)
Obsidian came from Yellowstone, Wyoming most likely.
What are the two different types of trade? How was obsidian traded to the east?
Reciprocity: The mutual transaction of objects without the use of money or other media of exchange
Redistribution: Resources collected from many individuals or groups are taken to a central place or put into a common pool or fund to be later taken out by an authority to return goods and services to benefit the group as a whole.
Obsidian was traded to the east by either direct acquisition (travel to source of amaterial, exchange goods or service for it, receive it as a gift, moves materials less distance) or through Down the Line Trade (Group that controls a resource gives some of it to neighbors, neighbors pass it on to next group and so on..., frequency of resource declines as distance from source grows, moves material greater distance)and is likely the most common form of trade used to move obsidian to the east.
Discuss in detail how individuals were differentiated by status in the burials at Moundville.
The Moundville Burials differentiated status by three different groups, that of ascribed status, high achieved status, and low achieved status. The first group of ascribed status can further be broken into the all male Chief burials with the widest array of grave goods, the second was all males and children, and the third was the likely relatives consisting of males and females and all of the chiefs were buried in the mounds and the rest were also buried in mounds or cemetaries near mounds. The second group consists of males and females of all ages and all buried in cemetaries near mounds. The third group consists of the lowest villagers who were buried occassionaly in cemetaries near mounds but also in village areas away from central mounds and some as skulls at the base of posts.
Found mostly along rivers, probably reflected considerations for local substance resources, alluvial soils, and transportation/communication.
Upland settlements reflect seasonal hunting.
Variety in settlement types suggest specialized activities, responses for functioning for the broader society and residential, procurement and administrative.
These sites were arranged hierarchically:
Large centralized sites: contained high ranking administrators, priests, bureaucrats, collection of food and materials, ceremonial and ritual celebrations of the social system were supervised
Small Centers: Low-rank administrators, farmsteads, basic unit most likely a small family group of some type.
Settlements of more than one mound were organized with a Central Plaza, Large central mound likely elevated toward the sun, council house on the opposite side, smaller mounds away from the, village area surrounded the central precinct, and cornfields surrounded the village.
A Mississippian Southeast complex that is associated with complex motifs (Sun circles, swastikas, hand-and-eye, skulls, etc), God-Animal Representations (Eagles, woodpeckers, rattlesnakes, panthers, bobcats, deer, and spiders) and ceremonial objects such as gorgets, conch pendents, copper plates, ear spools, celts monolithic axes, batons or maces, effigy pipes, Discoidal stones Hunter Gatherers: Small bands, semi nomadic existence, seasonal migration, followed animals,
wide variety of food sources (350 plus plant varieties),
exploited territory extensively, security through diversity, and small portable tool kit. Also had a communal life, little specialization in social/economic roles, fluid gender roles, relatively egalitarian, cultural/technical information is widely diffused, and custom/tradition rules.
Agriculturalists: Sedentism and expanding population sizes(more than h and g's 25 to 250), permanent living sites, replaced diversity with a monoculture diet, exploits intensively, security through specialization, and tool kit and technology expands exponentially. Also private life, property ownership increased, increased specialization in social and economic roles, gender specific roles, social hierarchy emerges, cultural and technical information expands and becomes a form of property and coercion becomes necessary.
Ceramic containers were fundamental (boil and store maize and beans in them)
Highly involved with other groups, shown through trade of obsidian, chert, and other raw materials, ceramics, buffalo hides, red ocher, and feathers, luxury items such as turquoise, copper bells, and sea shells, and groups would trade for seeds as well.
Area with large cliffs, sand, sage, and cottonwood trees.
Archaic hunters and gatherers lived in Chaco Canyon by 1000 BC began Maize and squash cultivation occasionally. Later they developed a local maize and the first villages appear and eventually great Pueblos were built in the high cliffs.
Dramatic increase in population density and cultural complexity in the beginning with early villages having pit houses with stone huts behind them for food storage, largest sites had 20 pit houses clustered together, but the pit houses eventually became Kivas.
Eventually the towns were well planned, with extensive road and water systems, lining outlying sites through roads and visual communication systems, with many farmers still living in small villages.
Anasazi built the Great Housesbetween 900 and 1000 AD. Three Great houses include Penasco Blanco, Pueblo Bonito, and Una Vida. Each located at junctions of major drainages.