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Science Cumulative Test
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Gravity
Terms in this set (75)
deduce
to figure something out from known facts using logical thinking
inquiry
a process of learning that starts with asking questions and proceeds by seeking the answers to questions
natural laws
the set of rules that are obeyed by every detail of everything that occurs in the universe
gram
a measurement of mass (g)
energy
the ability to change or cause change
matter
everything that has mass and takes up space
mass
the amount of matter an object contains (m=density*v)
force
a push or pull (F=ma)
objective
describes evidence that documents only what actually happened as exactly as possible
repeatable
describes evidence that can be seen independently by others if they repeat the same experiment in the same way
theory
a scientific explanation supported by a lot of evidence collected over a long period of time
hypothesis
a possible explanation that can be tested by comparison as scientific evidence
scientific method
background research, create a hypothesis, do an experiment, record data, analyze and conclude, report results (if results do not agree with hypothesis, rethink and come up with another experiment)
variable
a quantity that can change, often with a numerical value
value
the particular number (with units) that a variable may have
speed
the distance an object travels divided by the time it takes (scalar); slope of position vs time graph
velocity
the distance an object travels divided by the time it takes (vector)
average speed
the total distance divided by the total time for a trip
constant speed
speed that stays the same; travel the same distance each second
experiment
a situation specially set up to investigate something, usually relationships between variables
experimental variable
the variable you change in an experiment
error
the difference between a measurement and the true value (to calculate: find true value, find difference between highest/lowest number and true value, larger difference is error)
average
a mathematical process in which you add up all the values, then divide the result by the number of values (true value)
accuracy
describes how close a measurement is to the true value
significant difference
2 results are only significantly different if their difference is much larger than estimated error
scalar
a quantity that does not have a direction
vector
a quantity that does have a direction
formalized hypothesis
If (independent variable) and (dependent variable) are related, then after _______, ______ will be observed
position
a variable that gives your location relative to an origin
origin
the place where the position was a value of zero
axis
one or two (or more) number lines that form a graph
coordinates
values that give position relative to an origin
independent variable
in an experiment, a variable that is changed by the experimenter and/or causes changes in the dependent variable (x-axis)
dependent variable
in an experiment, a variable that responds to changes in the independent variable (y-axis)
acceleration
the rate at which velocity changes; slope of speed vs time graph; (v^2 - v^1)/t; meters per second squared
free fall
accelerated motion that happens when an object falls with only the force of gravity acting on it
acceleration due to gravity
the value of 9.8 meters per second squared, which is the acceleration in free fall at the Earth's surface, usually represented by small letter g
centrifugal force
tendency of an object following a curved path to fly away from the center (swinging someone in circle, let go)
centripetal force
the force that keeps an object moving with a uniform speed along a circular path (swinging someone in circle, arm keeps them from flying out)
weight
a force that comes from gravity pulling down on any object with mass
Newton
the metric unit of force equal to 4.448 Newtons
tension
a pulling force that acts in a rope, string, or other object
compression
a squeezing force that can act on a spring
4 elementary force
(strongest to weakest) strong nuclear force, electromagnetic force, weak force, and gravity
friction
a force that resists motion (more force=more friction)
sliding friction
force that resists dry sliding motion between any 2 surfaces
static friction
keeps a stopped object from moving; friction force that resists motion between 2 surfaces that aren't moving
rolling friction
force exerted by a rolling object and a stationary object
fluid friction
force exerted by liquids or gases (viscosity)
net force
the sum of all forces acting on an object
equilibrium
the state in which the net force on an object is zero
normal force
force that a surface exerts on an object that is pressing on it
free-body diagram
a diagram showing all forces acting on an object
Hooke's Law
the more a spring is compressed or stretched (without taking it to the point of distortion), the greater the force and the force is proportional to the extension or compression
reducing friction
ball bearings, separate 2 surfaces with a cushion of air, lubricants, magnetic levitation...
useful friction
brakes on a bike, tires on car, cleats...
inertia
the property of an object that resists changes in its motion (the greater the mass, the greater the inertia)
1st Law of Motion
an object in motion tends to stay in motion, an object at rest tends to stay at rest. Unless, acted upon by an unbalanced force
2nd Law of Motion
in the presence of a net force, an object experiences acceleration
3rd Law of Motion
for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
unbalanced forces
result in a net force on an object that can cause changes in motion
action and reaction force pairs
act on different objects so do not cancel each other out; are always there whenever any force appears and have exact same strength
Joule
a unit of energy; 1 Newton * 1 Meter
law of conservation of energy
energy can never be created nor destroyed, only transformed into another form
potential energy
energy of position; higher it is, greater the potential energy (PE=m
g
h OR PE=w*h) (elastic potential, chemical, gravitational)
kinetic energy
energy of motion; faster, greater amount of kinetic energy (KE=1/2
m
v^2) (thermal, sound, light, mechanical, motion)
work
a form of energy that comes from force applied over distance; I Newton-Meter (W=Fd)
power
rate of doing work or moving energy (P=w/t)
Watt
a power of 1 Joule per second
input
forces, energy, or power supplied to make a machine work
output
the forces, energy, or power provided by the machine (cannot exceed input)
system
a group of objects, effects, and variables that are related
meter
the fundamental unit of length in the metric system, equal to 100 centimeters
liter
a metric unit of capacity, formerly defined as the volume of 1 kilogram of water under standard conditions, now equal to 1,000 cubic centimeters
volume
the amount of space that a substance or object occupies (v=lwh); to find volume of irregular objects, use water displacement
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