40 terms

PreCollege Vocabulary: Physics

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matter
(Roughly 80 percent of matter in the universe cannot be directly observed.)
(n) something that takes up space
物质
mass
( An object on the Moon would weigh less than on Earth because of less gravity, but it would still have the same mass.)
(n) the amount of matter in something
质量
massive
(The children loved playing with the massive soccer ball.)
(adj) very large
巨大的
charge
(Flow batteries store charges in liquid electrolytes that sit in external tanks.)
(n) received electricity
(v) to transmit power
电荷;充电
particle
(Microscopic dust particles are larger than the air pollutants released by cars and power plants.)
(n) tiny fragment, small piece of matter
粒子
atom
(John Dalton theorized that each kind of element is composed of identical atoms.)
(n) smallest unit of matter
原子
conduct
(Copper is one of the metals that conduct heat most easily.)
(v) transfer heat
传导
conduction
(Cooking on a stove top works by conduction.)
(n) process by which heat or electricity passes through or along something
导热导电;传导率
thermal
(The colorful thermal underwear was warm without being bulky.)
(adj) relating to heat
保温的
elevate
(Hot air is used to elevate this balloon.)
(v) raise
提升
elevation
(From an elevation of 12 km, the airplane passenger could see the clouds below.)
(n) how high something is raised above a surface or ground line
海拔高度
accelerate
(Richards-Ross, the bronze medalist at the 2008 Beijing Games, accelerated her pace to pass her opponents and win the women's 400-meter dash.)
(v) speed up; antonym: decelerate
加速
acceleration
(The acceleration from 0 to 100 km/hr took less than 3 seconds in the new sports car.)
(n) increase in speed
加速
velocity
(The cheetah can run at a velocity of 109.4 to 120.7 km/h (68.0 to 75.0 mph), greater than any other land animal.)
(n) speed
速度;速率
flux
(A low rate of particle flux suggests that Saturn's rings could be more older than previously thought.)
(n) continuous change or succession of changes
流量
attract
(Clean glass is an example of a material that attracts water, as can be seen by how easily spilled water spreads.)
(v) ability to pull towards
吸引
attraction
(The surface of a water droplet is held together by the attraction between molecules.)
(n) quality of pulling something towards something or someone else
吸引力
repel
(A smartphone app uses ultrasound waves to repel insects.)
(v) push or drive away
击退
repulsion
(When sodium is dropped in water, the repulsion of positive charges rips it apart, causing an explosion.)
(v) action of pushing something away
排斥力
fluctuate
(If your energy levels fluctuate a lot, you might need to focus on achieving more balance.)
(v) change continually
波动
magnetism
(Baby eels have tiny crystals of iron in their brain that enable them to use magnetism to navigate.)
(n) force of attraction or repulsion
磁性
reflect
(Sunlight reflected off the glacier like a mirror.)
(v) bounce light off a surface
反射
reflection
(My photo of the painting was ruined by reflections from the bulletproof glass that protects the work from damage.)
(n) light and/or image bounced back from a surface
反射
reflective
(Mirrored glass is one of the most useful reflective materials.)
(adj) describes surface or material that emits lights
反射性的
elastic
(The experiment showed that when a rubber band is heated, it becomes more elastic.)
(adj) flexible, about to assume original shape after being stretched
有弹性的
elasticity
(Fabrics with elasticity are now being used to make athletic clothing.)
(n) ability of a material to bounce back after being disturbed
弹性
illuminate
(He wants to see children in villages doing homework on computers, illuminated by electric lights, rather than the oil lamps that he once used.)
(v) to light up
照亮
illumination
(1.3 million lights create brilliant illumination at an annual festival held on the Japanese island of Okinawa.)
(n) lighting
照度
vibration
(The amount of vibration and its speed will determine the nature of a sound.)
(n) shaking motion
摆动;震动
vibrate
(When the strings of a violin are plucked, they vibrate and sound is produced.)
(v) move back and forth rapidly; synonym: shake
震动;摆动
radiate
(The sun radiates light and heat.)
(v) send out rays, heat or energy
辐射
radiation
(Photovoltaic energy works by generating electricity from panels that absorb solar radiation.)
(n) energy transmitted in waves and particles
辐射
pivot
(The sail pivoted around the axis of the boat's mast.)
(v) move around a fixed point
支点
friction
(When you walk, friction is what prevents your feet from slipping on the floor.)
(n) force that two surfaces exert on each other when they rub against each other
摩擦力
momentum
( The ice hockey team has the momentum and it is going to take some effort to stop.)
(n) measure of how hard it is for something to stop moving
动能
inertia
(When the engine stalled before the hill, I had to press on the gas pedal to overcome the inertia.)
(n) tendency of objects to resist any change in motion
惯性
mechanics
(Companies already sell systems that use quantum mechanics to block eavesdroppers.)
(n) science of motion; inner workings of a machine
力学;机械学
static
(Graphene, valued for the static strength that comes from its honeycomb structure, is being used in body armor.)
(adj) not moving or changing; antonym: dynamic
静力的
kinetic
(The kinetic energy from peddling a bicycle can fuel electronic devices.)
(adj) describes energy in motion
动力学的
plummet
(The diver plummeted into the water.)
(v) drop sharply
垂直落下