Chapter 6 Science Review
Terms in this set (60)
What are chromosomes that contain genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of the organism?
What is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes; occurs during prophase I of meiosis?
What is the process that occurs when sperm and egg unite?
What are haploid cells in which the female is egg and the male is sperm?
gametes (sex cells)
What is the process of formation of the male and female gametes (sex cells); take place in gonads?
What are chromosomes that are similar in size, shape, and banding?
What is a picture of your chromosomes called?
What is the process that produces sex cells (gametes) for sexual reproduction; makes 4 haploid daughter cells which are different from either parent cell?
What are haploid cells produced during meiosis that have little more than DNA and are disintegrated?
What are chromosomes that directly control development of sexual characteristics?
What are two identical copies of chromosomes joined at the centromere?
What are most cells; they contain homologous sets of chromosomes (46 chromosomes; 23 pairs of chromosomes)?
somatic cells (body cells)
What allows organisms to survive changes in environment?
Where does meiosis take place?
occurs only in eukaryotes; does not occur in most body cells; in animals, occurs in the sex organs for sexual reproduction
What is the function of meiosis?
to produce gametes for sexual reproduction
What does it means to be diploid?
containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent
What process produces diploid cells?
What do we call human cells that are diploid (2 interchangeable names)?
What is the difference between autosomes and sex chromosomes?
sex chromosomes = sex characteristics, autosomes = control all other characteristics
How many autosomes do humans have?
How many sex chromosomes do humans have?
What makes an individual male?
What makes an individual female?
Who determines the gender of a child?
What does it mean to be haploid?
to have half of the chromosomes from the parent cell
What process produces haploid cells?
What do we call human cells that are haploid (2 interchangeable names)?
gamete, sex cell
What we call a picture of a person's chromosomes?
What do we call the fusion of a sperm cell and an egg cell?
What gets divided in meiosis I?
What gets divided in meiosis II?
What do we call similar chromosomes?
What do we call identical chromosomes that are attached at the centromere?
What types of cells are formed after the first division in meiosis?
What types of cells are formed after the second division in meiosis?
In humans, meiosis produces cells with ____________ number of chromosomes.
In humans mitosis produces cells with _____________ number of chromosomes.
What are the two ways that meiosis contributes to varied offspring?
random assortment of chromosomes and crossing over
What happens during meiosis I?
homologous chromosomes are separated from one another
What happens during meiosis II?
sister chromatids are separated (like in mitosis) but, the resulting cells are haploid rather than diploid
What is the tendency for genes located close together on the same chromosome to be inherited together?
How many daughter cells are produced during meiosis?
How many daughter cells are produced during mitosis?
What type of cell is produced (haploid or diploid) during meiosis?
What type of cell is produced (haploid or diploid) during mitosis?
How does the daughter cell compare to the parent cell in meiosis?
How does the daughter cell compare to the parent cell in mitosis?
What are daughter cells in meiosis used for?
What are daughter cells in mitosis used for?
growth/development, repair, and asexual reproduction
How many divisions does meiosis have?
How many divisions does mitosis have?
What are advantages of sexual reproduction?
adds to genetic diversity of a population so less susceptible to adverse conditions
What are advantages of asexual reproduction
don't need to waste energy finding a partner, quick rate of division
What are the disadvantages of sexual reproduction?
have to find a mate for reproduction so need to expend energy, slower process, must make gametes first then find a mate
What are disadvantages of asexual reproduction?
all identical genetically so susceptible to disease & adverse conditions, identical so pass on bad trait every time
How does the offspring's appearance compare to the parent's appearance in asexual reproduction?
How does the offspring's appearance compare to the parent's appearance in sexual reproduction?
How might we be able to predict a possible offspring's traits?
by looking at the genes of the parents
What is involved with random assortment and crossing over?
Where does each chromosome come from?