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18 terms

Chapter 6

STUDY
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sediment
matter deposited by some natural process
clastic
capable of being taken apart
deposition
the act of deposing someone
lithification
The process that converts sediments into solid rock by compaction or cementation.
cementation
The process in which minerals precipitate into pore spaces between sediment grains and bind sediments together to form rock.
bedding
layering visible in rocks that results from the settling of particles during deposition
graded bedding
sediments of different sizes and shapes settle to different levels
cross-bedding
structure in which relatively thin layers are inclined at an angle to the main bedding. Formed by currents of wind or water.
clastic sedimentary rocks
formed from mechanically weathered sediments and rock fragments
porosity
the property of being porous
evaporite
the sediment that is left after the evaporation of seawater
regional metamorphism
a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to changes in temperature and pressure over a large area, generally as a result of tectonic forces.
contact metamorphism
a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to contact with magma.
hydrothermal metamorphism
occurs when very hot water reacts with rock, altering its mineralogy and chemistry
foliated
(especially of metamorphic rock) having thin leaflike layers or strata
nonfoliated
The texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are not arranged in planes or bands
porphyroblast
A large crystal surrounded by a much finer grained matrix of other minerals in a metamorphic rock.
rock cycle
sequence of events in which rocks are formed, destroyed, altered, and reformed by geological processes