44 terms

Acids, Bases, and Solutions

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solution
a homogeneous mixture
solvent
substance that is present in the largest amount
solute
substance that is present in the smallest amount
acids
contain at least on H anion
properties of acids
-taste sour
-feel like water, except on broken skin
-corrosive
-react with metals to make hydrogen gas
-dissolve in water to form an electrolyte solution
litmus paper/ pH paper color change with acid
turn from blue to red
acid + metal
some salt + H2
acid + base
water + some salt
acid + carbonate
carbon dioxide + water + some salt
common acids
citrus fruits, yogurt, buttermilk, vinegar, stomach acid
acids vital to industry
sulfiric, phosphoric, nitric, hydrochloric
base
a substance that forms hydroxide ions (OH) in a water solution
properties of bases
-crystalline in undissolved state
-taste bitter
-feel slippery
-strong bases are corrosive
-dissolves in water to form electrolyte solution
base reacts with litmus paper
red litmus paper turns blue
dissociation
an acid or a base comes apart to form its cations and anions
base uses
cleaning products, meds, fabrics
arrhenious acid
substance that contains hydrogen and ionizes to produce hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution
arrhenious base
a substance that contains a hydroxide group and dissociates to produce a hydroxide ion in an aqueous solution
bronstead-lowry acid
substance that donates a hydrogen ion
bronstead-lowry base
substance that accepts a hydrogen ion
amphoteric
a substance that can act as both an acid and a base- H2O, NH3
ionizes almost completely in solution
strong acid
only partly ionizes in solution
weak acid
dissociates completely in solution
strong base
does not ionize completely in solution
weak base
equations for strong acids and bases use (blank), indicating that ions were formed
single arrow
equations for weak acids and bases use (blank) arrows, pointing in opposite directions, indicating an incomplete reaction
double
dilute
few molecules of an acid or base dissolved in a volume of solution
concentrated
many molecules of an acid or base dissolved in a volume of solution
unsaturated
small amount of solute in solvent
saturated
max amount of solute dissolved in solvent at room temp
super saturated
more solute dissolved in solvent by inc. room temp
acids have pH (blank) 7
below
bases have pH (blank) 7
above
neutral substances have pH of
7 +/- .2
(blank) have more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
acid solutions
(blank) have more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions
basic solutions
(blank) have an equal number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions
neutral solutions
you have H and want pH
pH=-log(H)
you have OH and want pOH
pOH=-log(OH)
you have pOH and want OH
10^-pOH
you have pH and want H
10^-pH
neutralization
chemical reaction between an acid and a base in an aqueous solution producing a salt and water-double replacement
titration
used to determine the concentration of an acid or a base solution
-a solution of known concentration is the standard solution
-an acid/base indicator is added to the unknown solution
-a color change that persists is the end point: acid- colorless, base- pink
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