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56 terms

Poetry Terms

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blank verse
unrhymed iambic pentameter
couplet
rhyming stanzas made up of two lines
dramatic monologue
type of poem in which a speaker addresses a silent listener
elegy
a formal sustained poem lamenting the death of a particular person
English Sonnet (Shakespearean)
14-line sonnet consisting of three quatrains of abab cdcd efef followed by a couplet, gg. Usually uses iambic pentameter.
epic
extensive, serious poem that tells the story about a heroic figure
free verse
poetry free of a strict rhythmical structure or set rhyme scheme
haiku
Japanese poem composed of three unrhymed lines of 5,7,5; usually about some form of nature
iambic pentameter
poetic meter consisting of five repetitions of an iamb; most closely approximates the normal rhythm of English
idyll
poetry that depicts a peaceful, idealized country scene; otherwise a long poem telling a story about heroes of a byegone age
Italian sonnet (Petrarchan)
a sonnet consisting of an octave with the rhyme pattern abbaabba followed by six lines with rhyme patter cdecde or cdcdcd
light verse
poetry that entertains with humor or wit; some, like satire, has an underlying serious intent
limerick
short, sometimes vulgar, humorous poem consisting of five anapestic lines
lyric
once referred to poetry meant to be sung to music; now describes any short, concentrated poem expressing personal feelings
narrative
poetry that tells a story
ode
usually a long, complex lyric expressing profound emotion; usually has a more elaborate and exalted expression and style than other lyric
ottava rima
a poem written in 8-line octave
pastoral
poem that depicts rural life in a peaceful, romanticized way
quatrain
stanza or poem consisting of four lines; lines 2 and 4 must rhyme
sonnet
14 line poem usually in iambic pentameter and following a specified rhyme scheme
terza rima
type of poetry consisting of 10-11 syllables lines arranged in three-line tercets
villanelle
19-line poem consisting of 5 tercets and a final quatrain on two rhymes
end-stopped line
line of poetry marked by a logical or rhetorical pause at the end
enjambment
running over of a sentence from line or stanza into another so that closely related words fall in different lines
foot
units of accented and unaccented syllables, used to measure meter
meter
generally regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in poetry; measured in units of feet
onomatopoeia
naming of a thing or action by vocal imitation of the sound associated with it
refrain
regularly recurring phrase or verse especially at the end of each stanza or division of a poem or song
scansion
analyzing the metrical patterns of a poem
stanza
division of a poem consisting of a series of lines arranged together in a usually recurring pattern of meter and rhyme
syllabic verse
poetry in which the number of syllables per line is fixed (ex. haiku)
alliteration
repetition at close intervals of initial identical consonant sounds; or vowel sounds in successive words or syllables that repeat
anaphora
repetition of a word or expression at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, sentences, or verses especially for rhetorical or poetic effect
antithesis
rhetorical contrast of ideas by means of parallel arrangements of words, clauses, or sentences
assonance
repetition of a vowel sound within two or more words in close proximity
consonance
repetition of a consonant sound within two or more words in close proximity
end rhyme
rhyme occuring at the ends of lines
internal rhyme
rhyme between a word within a line and another either at the end of the same line or within another line
slant-rhyme
words that do not rhyme exactly, but end with similar sounds
polysyndeton
repetition of conjunctions in close succession
parallelism
repetition of words, phrases, or sentences that have same grammatical structure or that state a similar idea
repetition
repeating word, phrase, or other element for emphasis
allusion
a brief reference to a historical or literary figure, event, or object
hyperbole
exaggeration for effect or humor
metaphor
direct or implied comparison between two dissimilar objects
conceit
exaggerated comparison popularized in the 17th century by the metaphysical poets
metonymy
object or characteristic associated with the subject used in place of the subject (ex. the pen is mightier than the sword)
paradox
statement that contains seemingly contradictory elements or appears contrary to common sense, yet can be seen as true when viewed from another angle
personification
giving human characteristics to something non-human
simile
comparison between seemingly dissimilar objects using like or as
symbol
something that stands for or suggests something else by reason of relationship, association, convention, or accidental resemblance; especially a visible sign of something else
synecdoche
figure of speech by which part stands for whole ("fifty sails" for "fifty ships"), whole for part ("society" for "high society") the species for the genus ("cutthroat" for "assassin"), genus for species ("creature" for "man") or the name of the material for the thing made ("boards" for "stage")
synesthesia
describing one kind of sensation in terms for another
pun
words or expressions which contain two or more meanings simultaneously, helpful in a genre which requires language to condense meanings in a compact space
paradox
language appears to contradict itself; contradiction is only apparent, however
irony
contrast or discrepancy between expectation and reality