editing and sound
Terms in this set (83)
individual shots are combined into a cinematic whole
a fundamental assumption behind all film editing is the tendency of viewers to interpret shots in relation to surrounding shots
a single piece of continuous action, the basic building block of film editing
What are the two explicit values of a shot?
what is within the shot
how the shot is situated in the film
assembly of shots that give impression of continuous time and space
a collection of scenes
editing's most fundamental tool
What limited in any single shot?
our sense of space to the framing of that shot
What happens when shots are placed in close proximity to that original shot?
sense of the overall space in which the characters are moving shifts and expands
a mental phenomenon by which viewers derive more meaning from the interaction of two sequential shots than from a single shot in isolation.
editing is used to manipulate the presentation of what?
the plot time onscreen
What are some techniques used to shorten the plot time onscreen?
What does editing determine?
the duration of a shot
How does the editor control the rhythm of the film?
by varying the duration of the shots
What does the editors choice regarding the rhythm of scenes create?
larger patterns of shot duration that can be built and broken for dramatic emphasis and impact
What are two major approaches to editing?
continuity and discontinuity
what is consistent from shot to shot?
What are maintained from shot to shot?
graphic, spatial, and temporal relations
What are the two building blocks of continuity editing?
master shot and screen direction
a type of shot that commonly provides the foundation for continuity editing, a continuous shot of the action of the scene, orients the viewer in preparation for the shots that follow, shows the location of ensuring action, suggests that mood, and gives the viewer additional information
provides continuity of movement, direction, screen position; the action in the scene must move along a hypothetical line that keeps the action on a single side of the camera (axis of action); the camera must shoot consistently on the one side of that line
what are the two editing techniques that maintain continuity?
what are the three match cuts?
graphic match cut
eye-line match cut
the use of these terms is somewhat fluid-they are often used interchangeably referring to repeatedly cutting between 2 or more sets of actions
parallel, cross-cut, intercut editing
cutting between two or more actions occurring simultaneously or at different times in different places
two or more actions happening at the same time in a different places
any use of cutting between times and places
What are the 5 transitions used between cuts?
fade and dissolve
What are the 4 sound productions?
the aural effect of characters, objects, and settings; operates the on both physical and psychological levels
What create the sound track on a film?
sound and silence
Who are responsible for the overall approach and design of all sound used in the movie?
director, editor, and sound designer
What two things are co-expressible and can create different worlds?
image and sound
What is the main component of sound recorded during production?
occur during filming are recorded but may or may not be used in the finished film
background and other sounds other than dialogue
sound is recorded separately from the film or digital image
responsible for the overall process of editing the film and picture editing; works with the sound and sound effects editors; works with the composer and supervises music editors
edit the sound and create the different tracks necessary for the sound mix
edit music from the composer (original score) and the music supervisor (pre-recorded songs and music)
What happens with sound mixing during production?
uses a portable mixer to control levels and record onto multiple tracks
What happens with sound mixing during post production?
separate tracks prepared by sound and music crew in the studio to manipulate technical (levels) and for creative reasons
During what sound mix the film is projected synchronously as each track is played and mixed until technically correct and fulfill directors overall plan?
the final sound mix
What is the order to sound production?
dialogue, sound effects, and then music
What happens when all the tracks of sound are finished?
they are all combined into one composite sound track
How long is the process of finishing the sound track?
What the 3 aspects of describing film sound?
perceptual characteristics, source, and type
What are the 4 aspects of perceptual characteristics in sound?
pitch, loudness, quality, and fidelity
What are the 2 aspects of the type of sound?
vocals and musical
levels of high or low, defines by frequency
volume or intensity of loud/soft sounds, depends on amplitude
timbre, texture, and color that are simple/complex, harmonic content
a sounds faithfulness or unfaithfulness to its source
What are the three sources of film sound?
diegetic vs nondiegetic
onscreen vs offscreen
internal vs external
originates from a source within a film's world; gives an awareness of the spatial and temporal dimensions of the shot; internal or external/onscreen or offscreen/recorded during production or constructed during postproduction
comes from a source outside a film's world; usually has no relevant spatial or temporal dimensions; offscreen and recorded during postproduction; assumed to be inaudible to the characters onscreen
Onscreen sound is what?
offscreen sound is what?
effects, music, or vocals that emanate from the world of the story
diegetic offscreen sound
musical score or narration by someone who is not a character in the story
nondiegetic offscreen sound
occurs whenever we hear what we assume are the thoughts of a character within a scene
comes from a place within the diegesis and we assume that it is heard by the characters in that world
What are the four types of film sound?
What are the two types of vocal sounds?
dialogue and narration
the words spoken by characters during their onscreen appearance
offscreen voices, omniscient or from a character
What are the two types of environmental sounds?
ambient sound and sound effects
What are the two types of sound effects?
foley and loop groups
composed and recorded specifically for the film is called score
sets mood, furthers the theme and enhances or manipulates emotions
are frequently associated with individual characters
music that is acquired (already existing music) and used in the sound track
functions as a sound when the filmmaker deliberately suppresses the vocal, environmental, or musical sounds that we expect in a movie; with careful interplay between this and sound, a filmmaker can produce a rhythm for the film that calls attention to the characters' perceptions
What are the 5 functions of film sound?
audience awareness and expectations
expression of point of view
rhythm and emphasis
What guides our attention and influences our interpretation?
How does sound direct our attention?
to spatial and temporal dimensions of a scene
How does sound create emphasis?
by its selection, arrangement, and enhancement
How is the point of view expressed through sound?
juxtaposing visual and aural images
What movies rely on sounds of all kinds to create worlds?
What elevate movies meanings?
sounds, music, and silence
sound accompanying movement on the screen or juxtaposed against movement; montage of sounds
What can underscore characters insight?
Can indicate the scene has not changed in their time or space or tie shots and scenes together even though time and space are changed
How can sound tie shots and scenes together?
overlapping sound or sound bridging