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1. The lumen of every blood vessel is lined by a monolayer of what cell type?
a. Endothelial cells
2. The alstic nature of the largest blood vessels walls allows them to act as a ______, maintaining the driving force for blood flow while the heart is relaxed during diastole.
a. Pressure reservoir
3. In the circulatory system, the largest pressure drop occurs across which blood vessels?
4. The total cross-sectional area is greatest in which blood veseels?
5. Resistance to blood flow is regulated primarily primarily by what blood vessels?
6. Glucose moves across continuous capillary walls by what mechanisms?
7. Under normal conditions, which forces favor filtration?
a. Capillary hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure
8. Veins function as ______ reservoirs due to their _________ compliance.
a. Volume: high
9. Given that h tenet filtration of fluid out of the capillaries averages about 3 liters per day, how is blood volume maintained in light of this apparent fluid loss?
a. The lymphatic system returns filtered fluid to the blood.
10. At rest, the greatest proportion of blood volume is present within the
a. Systemic veins
11. Information about mean arterial pressure is integrated within what area of the central nervous system?
a. Medulla oblongata
12. Which of the following structures contains high pressure baroreceptors?
a. Both the aortic arch and carotid sinus
13. Which of the following is a decrease in blood supply to the tissue such that it does not meet the metabolic demands of the tissue?
14. Carbon dioxide has what effect on systemic arterioles?
15. A constriction of an arteriole in response to stretch of the arteriole smooth muscle is called
a. Myogenic response
16. Which of the following processes is NOT a part of external respiration?
a. The use of oxygen and generation of carbon dioxide by the mitochondria during energy metabolism
17. What is the function of ciliated cells in the conducting zone?
a. Propel mucus containing trapped particles toward the glottis
18. What is an increase in blood flow in response to an increase in tissue metabolic activity called?
a. Active hyperemia
19. What are the most common cells that line the surface of the alveoli and are therefore associated with the exchange of gases within the lungs?
a. Type 1 alveolar cells
20. Which of the following occurs when intra-alveolar pressure exceeds atomospheric pressure?
a. Air moves out of the lung
21. At rest, expiration is a(n) _______ process that involves__________.
a. Passive: relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostals
22. What does contraction of the diaphragm cause?
a. Increase in the volume of the thoracic cavity and , therefore, a decrease in intra-alveolar pressure
23. The surface tension of the alveolus is reduced by surfactant produced by what type of cells?
a. Type 2 alveolar
24. which of the following chemicals will NOT result in a decrease in airway resistance?
25. What is the volume of air moved into and out of the lungs in a single breath during unforced breathing called?
a. Tidal volume
26. Which pressure is constant during the respiratory cycle?
a. Atmospheric pressure
27. What pressure changes with the phases of respiration but us always negative compared to atmospheric pressure
a. Intrapleural pressure
28. What is the tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume called?
a. Vital capacity
29. What is the primary determinant of airway resistance?
a. Airway radius
30. Which of the following does NOT contribute to the rapid movement of gases into and out of the blood within the lungs?
a. Rapid blood flow
31. Movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveoli and blood occurs by what process?
a. Simple diffusion
32. In a mixture of gases, the driving force for the movement of an individual gas within that mixture is ultimately the
a. Partial pressure of that gas
33. What percentage of air is oxygen?
34. During intense exercise, the metabolic activity of muscle causes ________ in the partial pressure of oxygen in the tissue, ________ the movement of oxygen into the tissue.
a. A decrease: facilitating
35. Each _______ on the hemoglobin subunit is capable of binding an oxygen molecule, thereby allowing _____ oxygen to bind with one hemoglobin molecule.
a. Heme: four
36. What is the primary driving force for the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin?
37. Which of the following increases oxygen unloading from hemoglobin?
a. Increased carbon dioxide in the tissue
38. What is labored or difficult breathing called?
39. What statement best describes why oxygen is unloaded in tissue that is highly active?
a. As temperature increases due to increased metabolism, the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen is decreased
40. Which statement best describes the Bohr effect?
a. The Bohr effect refers to a decrease in pH, which decrease the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.
41. The presence of bicarbonate ions in the blood has an important direct effect, aside from the transport of CO2, that involves
a. Maintain acid-base balance
42. Where in blood does the conversion of Co2 to bicarbonate occur?
43. The hydrogen ions released by the disassociation of carbonic acid are buffered by their
a. Active transport out of the erythrocyte
44. During quiet breathing, a persons breathing cycle consists of
a. Contraction and relaxation of inspiratory muscles
45. The more proteins in the blood, the higher the blood viscosity?
46. The factor having the greatest influence on resistance to blood flow is the radius of the blood vessels?
47. Intrinsic changes in arteriole radius have no effect ton arterial blood pressure?
48. The compound 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate is a metabolic intermediate of glycolysis within the erythrocyte that decreases the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin?
49. Oxygen is much more soluble in aqueous solution than carbon dioxide?
50. That force that moves air into and out of the lungs is the difference in pressure between the atmosphere and alveolus?
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