The attack at where, started the Civil War? How many men were killed? Which side won?
• At Fort Sumter, a fed. Outpost in South Carolina were attacked by federate troops
• Fort Sumter surrendered
• Lincoln said the military bases in South belonged to federates—federal property
What were the border states (slave states) that did not join the Confederacy?
• People who did not join the Confederate States
• Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri
Name three advantages of the North going in to the war.
Draw soldiers and workers
2. Network of roads, canals, and railroads
3. miles of railroad
4. Had money—had a more developed economy, banking system and currency
5. Larger population—more soldiers
Name three advantages of the South going in to the war.
1. Union started printing its own Confederate dollars
2. Strong military conditions
3. ¬great strategies - had lots of food
4. Fought on home turf
What was the strategy of the South?
1. Wear down the North and to capture Washington—break our spirit
2. tried to win foreign allies through cotton diplomacy—go to Europe
What was Winfield Scotts two part strategy?
1. Destroy the South's economy with a naval blockade of southern ports
2. Gain control of the Miss. River to divide the South
3. Causes them trouble to communicate
Define cotton diplomacy. Did it help the South? Why not?
• Thought that Great Britain would support the Confederacy because it needed the South's raw cotton to supply its textile industry
How did civilians on both sides help the war effort?
• Raised money, provided aid for soldiers, and ran emergency hospitals
What was Lincoln's main goal throughout the Civil War?
• Unite the Americas—bring us back to America
Tell about the First Battle of Bull Run.
• First major battle of civil war, and the Confederates won. Known as first battle of Manassas ... shattered the hope of the North winning
What battle was the bloodiest single day battle of the Civil War? How many casualties total? Which side was victorious?
• The battle of Antietam: known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, was the bloodiest single-day battle of the Civil War and U.S. History
• 25,000 people died in one day
Name the ship the South captured and turned into an ironclad. What did they rename it?
• Merrimack, renamed it Virginia
Study the political cartoon on page 482. What does the snake represent? Why choose an anaconda? Which side does it favor?
• Was a water snake—shoed water strategies
• Represents the North's plan to cut off supplies to the South through naval blockades
• Sides the North
Describe the encounter between the Virginia and the Monitor. (p.483)
• The Union army had already built its own ironclad, Monitor. The Virginia sooned returned to Hampshire roads and the Monitor was waiting.
• Monitor forced Virginia to withdraw
• Signaled naval warfare
Name the early morning battle in Tennessee which resulted in the Union army gaining greater control of the Mississippi River valley.
• Battle of Shiloh
• Union Army gained greater control of the Mississippi River Valley
• Bloody-two day battle war—North won (General Grant) although both sides claimed victory
Describe how David Farragut disguised his ships to get past the forts at New Orleans
• Ships were wrapped in chains to protect them like iron clads
• Sailors slapped mud unto the boat to make them harder to see
• Trees were tied to the masts to make the ships look like the forested shore
What was Grant's strategy to claim Vicksburg? What did the people resort to survive?
• Let them starve until they surrendered
• People ate horses, rats, and dogs
Why was Lincoln hesitant to free the slaves?
• He did not believe he had the constitutional power—worried about the effects of emancipation
• No negative side effects—if he ticked of the border states they could leave
After much thinking and rewriting, what did the Emancipation Proclamation order?
• The order to free the Confederate slave
• Did not free all slaves
• Only freed slaves in Border States
Name the almost all African American regiment that led a heroic charge at Fort Wagner.
• The 54th Massachussetts Infantry consisted mostly of free blacks
Tell about African Americans who served in the Union army. (last two paragraphs on page 493)
1. Received 10 dollars a month, 13 dollars for white
2. Usually led by white abolishnists
3. Confederates often killed their black captives or sold them into slavery
4. Lincoln suggested rewarding African Americans with the right to vote
What was the other name given to the Peace Democrats? What did they believe in?
• Copperheads—because they sympathized the South and opposed abolition
• Believed war was not necessary
How did Lincoln try to silence them?
• Suspended the rights of the Habeas Corpus-constitutional protection against unlawful prisonment
What was the biggest killer of the Civil War?
• Diseases such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, and typhoid
How did the war affect the economy in the North?
• Boomed in production and prices soared -- the lack of workers cause wages to rise 43%
Name the woman who organized the collection of medicine and supplies, assisted doctors and formed the basis of the future American Red Cross.
• Clara Barton
Why was Gettysburg a turning point of the war? What Northern victory in the South happened on the same day?
• Lee's troops would never launch an attack on the North
• Grant's capture of Vicksburg, Mississippi
What was Lincoln's message in the Gettysburg Address?
• He praised the soldiers and renewed his commitment to winning the Civil War
Name the series of battles aimed to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia. Was Grant victorious?
• The Wilderness Campaign—he was not successful
What was William Tecumseh Sherman's plan for a victory in the South?
• Carried out the Union plan to destroy southern railroads and industry
Where was Sherman's attack on the South and what were the results?
• The South lost—cost the South Atlanta, an important railroad link and its center of industry
Sherman then continued his March to the Sea toward Savannah. What technique did he employ? Give examples of how he put this technique to use. What was the long lasting effect of his destruction?
• Ordered his troops to destroy railways, bridges, crops, livestock and other sources
• Burned plantations and freed slaves
• Destroyed their economy
Where/when did the Civil War come to an end?
• The Union and Confederate leaders met at a home in Appotamattox Courthouse, where Lee surrendered to Grant, thus ending the Civil War
What were the terms of the surrender?
• Grant assured Lee that his troops would be fed, allowed to keep their horses and they would not be tried for treason—Lee signed the surrender documents