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Smooth Muscle

non-striated, long spindle like structure, involuntary, one nucleus

Skeletal Muscle

striated, cylindrical, voluntary, multinucleated

Cardiac Muscle

striated, interwoven fiber arrangement, one nucleus, located in heart

Components of Skeletal Muscle

muscle belly, muscle fiber bundle, muscle fiber, myofibril

Microstructure of Muscle Fibers

myofibrils, sarcomere, sarcoplasmic reticulum, transverse tubules


actin (thin filaments) & myosin (thick filaments)


includes Z line, M line, H zone, A band, I band

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

storage sites for calcium and terminal cisternae

Motor Unit

a group of fibers activated via the same nerve; all muscle fibers of one particular motor unit are always of the same fiber type

Intramuscle Coordination

the capacity to apply motor units simultaneously; force deficit

Intermuscle Coordination

the interplay between muscles that generate movement through contraction (agonists) and muscles responsible for opposing movement (antagonists)

Motor Unit Recruitment Process

recruitment of muscle fibers during resistance work depends on the level of muscle tension; as tension rises more and more of the various fiber types are recruited into the movement

Skeletal Muscle Functions

force production for locomotion and breathing, postural support, and heat production during cold stress

Muscle Spindles

a stretch receptor that sends signals to the spinal cord then to synapse with alpha motor neurons and causes the muscle to contract and resist being stretched; signal agonist

Golgi Tendon Organ

sensitive to tension and force that synapses with inhibitory neurons that synapse with alpha neurons and cause relaxation relieving the tension applied to the tendon; functions to protect the muscle from too much stretch

Static Contraction

a contraction in which the muscle tension or internal force against an external load is equal or weaker than the external load; no visible movement of external load occurs

Isometric Contraction

a static contraction in which there is no visible change in muscle length, even though the muscle has undergone muscle contraction; no work (work=force x distance) performed but energy is used

Dynamic Muscle Contraction

muscle tension or force is exerted against an external load;internal force is greater than the external load so movement of external load occurs

Isotonic Contraction

during dynamic work, continual changes in joint angle and speed result in changes in strength needs; constant addition or subtraction of motor units recruited causes the muscle to adapt to constantly changing tension requirements (iso=same or constant and tono=tension)

Isokinetic Contraction

a dynamic contraction that involves a constant speed contraction against a preset high resistance (iso=same or constant and kinetic=motion)

Plyometric Contraction

a hybrid contraction in that the muscle performs an isotonic concentric contraction from a stretched position

Concentric Contraction

muscle shortens as it goes through a range of motion; usually termed flexion

Eccentric Contraction

muscle lengthening during movement; usually termed extension

Maximal Strength or Absolute Strength

the total amount of weight you can lift at one time

Relative Strength

the performance of athletes classified by wight or athletes who must overcome their own body mass depends less on maximal strength than on the proportion of maximal strength to body mass (relative strength= maximal strength/ body mass)


the ability to overcome external resistance by developing a high rate of muscular contraction; also known as speed-strength

Muscular Endurance

the ability to resist fatigue in strength performance of longer duration; also known as strength endurance


aging affects muscle force output, a loss of fast-twitch fibers, may occur as a result of apoptosis, may occur as a result of disuse


the absolute force and power capacity of women is often less than that of men due to the difference in muscle volume

Fast Twitch Fibers

fast glyolytic and fast oxidative;significantly greater force and speed generating capability , fatigue faster, more anaerobic
Ex. sprinting

Slow Twitch Fibers

slow oxidative; suited for repeated contractions during activities requiring a force output of less than 20-25% of max force output, rely on oxygen
Ex. endurance activities

Sliding Filament Theory

the sliding of the thin actin filaments over the thick myosin filaments that causes shortening of the muscle to create movement

force deficit

the difference between assited and voluntarily generated maximal force

Factors that Affect Force Production

joint angle, muscle cross-sectional area, speed of movement, muscle fiber type, age, and sex

Joint Angle

the type of contraction and the force required to resist an external load as it changes at different joint angles

Muscle Cross-sectional Area

body mass is positively correlated with strength, provided that the mass is primarily muscle tissue or lean mass; the larger the muscle cross-sectional area, the more force it can generate

Speed of Movement

as the speed of movement is increased, the force that the muscle can develop is decreased

Relationship Between Maximal strength and Power

hormone testosterone must be present

another hyperichy factor is?

fiber type


medical term for muscle loss

Aerobic Metabolism

energy or ATP production in the presence of oxygen

Anaerobic Metabolism

energy or ATP production without the presence of oxygen

Phosphagen System

energy production for muscular activity fueled by immediate ATP and creatine phosphate muscle stores;has a limited supply therefore the duration of an activity is short, but it produces very large amounts of energy within a short period of time rate of recovery is rapid; yields 1 ATP

Anaerobic Glycolytic System

results in lactic acid build up; can produce energy without the presence of oxygen, energy production for muscular activity is fueled by stored glycogen and blood glucose; yield 2 ATP but it takes longer to produce thus slowing a person down


a biochemical process that releases energy in the form of ATP from glycogen and glucose; anaerobic process


primary energy fuels for brain, muscles, heart, and liver; most important fuel source for body during exercise

Aerobic Oxidative System

energy production for muscular activity is fueled by glycogen, glucose, fats, and proteins but takes longer to use fat for energy


fat molecule= glyceroc+3 fatty acids


the power house; anaerobic metabolism takes place here; increase in mitochondria= increase in work

Metabolic limiting factors

the system requires continuous and adequate supplies of oxygen and fuel sources that are necessary for aerobic metabolism and the rate of ATP utilization must be relatively slow to allow the process to meet the energy demands

Primary Roles of the Cardiovascular System

transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs, nutrients from the digestive system to other areas in the body, and waste products from sites of production to sites of excretion

Heart Structure

consists of four chambers: two ventricles and two atria


pump blood through the body


receive blood from peripheral organs and pump blood into the ventricles

Left Ventricle

pumps blood through the entire body

Right Ventricle

pumps blood a short distance to the lungs

Blood Pressure

an important measure of cardiac function

Two Components of blood pressure

diastole and systole


describes the pressure in the heart when the ventricles are relaxed and being filled with blood


the pressure in the ventricles when they are contracting and pushing blood out into the body

Stroke Volume

the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle each time the heart beats

Cardiac Output

the amount of blood that is pumped into the aorta each minute by the heart

Heart Rate

the number of times the heart beats in one minute, measured in beats per minute (bpm)


vessels that carry blood away from the heart


arteries that branch into smaller and smaller vessels


the arterioles that branch into even smaller vessels


allow the exchange of oxygen and nutrients from the blood to muscles and organs and also allows blood to pick up waste products and carbon dioxide from metabolism


as the blood begins to return to the heart, capillaries connect to form larger and larger vessels


venules that merge into larger vessels that return blood to the heart

Primary role of the respiratory system

deliver oxygenated air to blood and remove carbon dioxide from blood, a by product of metabolism

Components of Respiratory System

lungs, several passageways leading from outside to the lungs, and muscles that move air in and out of the lungs


located in the thoracic cavity/chest; the right side is larger than the left side because the heart takes up more space on the left side

Conduction Zone

a set of anatomical structures through which air passes before reaching the respiratory zone

Conduction Zone Components

bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles

Conduction Zone Breakdown

the trachea branches into right and left bronchi that enter the lungs and continue to branch into smaller and smaller tubes called bronchioles, and finally terminal bronchioles

Respiration Zone

the region where gas exchange occurs


the functional units of the lungs are the tiny air sacs

Alveolar Sae

a cluster in bunches like grapes with a common opening into an alveolar duct


the primary muscle responsible for passive respiration

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