Terms in this set (103)
Theravada Buddhists practice a simple form of meditation called
According to Buddhist tradition, what are the three characteristics of existence?
suffering, impermanence, and no-self
The term anatman means
'no self' or 'no soul'
In Buddhist tradition, Mara is
lord of illusion and death
Where was the Buddha's first sutra (discourse or sermon)
The deer park Sarnath, near Varansasi
The term "buddha" literally means ___________.
'fully enlightened one'
In the Buddhist tradition, the term 'dharma' means __________.
Which bodhisattva of compassion in China is named _________. Sometimes this bodhisattva is referred to 'virgin mary of east asia'?
The term duke means _________.
The Buddhist monastic community consists of ordained men and women called __________.
bhikshus and bhiksunis
As part of Sikh services, what does hearing/receiving the Guru's Vak ('Saying') involve?
Opening the Adi Granth at random and reading the first hymn on the left-hand page.
What is symbolized in Sikhism by the two swords, first donned by Guru Hargobind?
The temporal (miri) and spiritual (piri) authority of the Gurus.
What is the langar?
The communal meal open to all castes, prepared as a community service.
What 'Seed Formula', the first words of the Adi Granth, constitute a fundamental statement of Sikh belief?
The Mul Mantra
In what region of India did Sikhism emerge?
How many human Gurus are there in Sikh lineage?
What are the five mahavratas ('great vows') taken by all Jaina ascetics?
What has been the central contemporary issue for Jainas in India?
Defining jaina identity as distinct from Hinduism, and Jainism as a world religion
According to Jaina cosmology, the entire universe is made up of what two broad categories of substances?
Jiva and ajiva
Which Guru instituted significant reforms leading to greater equality and acceptance of women within Sikhism?
The word Sikh means ________ .
Khalsa initiates, male and female, were given the surnames _________ .
singh and kaur
The 'small (or lesser ) vows' that govern Jaina lay life are called the ________ .
What script, refined by Guru Angad, is the principal form of Sikh written language?
The Jaina canon is known as the ________ .
Jinas, the highest expressions of the Jaina ideal, are also known as ________ .
What, according to Sikh tradition, did Nanak receive from God during his mystical experience?
a cup of divine nectar (amrit)
According to the Jaina tradition, the path to happiness, truth, and self-realization is the path of ________ .
What is the term for 'divine order' (or 'divine will/command'), central to Sikhism?
The most recent of the Jinas in this time cycle, sometimes considered the 'founder' of present Jainism, is known as
The ritual of sallekhana involves ________.
fasting unto death
What, according to Sikh tradition, did Guru Nanak famously proclaim after his mystical experience?
"there is no hindu, there is no muslim"
According to Jaina teaching, when was the cosmos created?
-it has no point of origin, but is timeless
it has no point in origin, but is timeless
In what famous text do we find the first line "The way that can be spoken of / Is not the constant way"?
Who, along with Confucius himself, are considered China's three foremost philosophers of the Confucian tradition?
Mengzi (Mencius) and Xunzi
In Confucian tradition, li refers not only to religious ritual but also ________ .
the rules of social etiquette and everyday courtesy
What important ritual, whose roots are in a combination of native Japanese, Korean, and Chinese folk beliefs, has been an enduring responsibility for all of Japan's religious traditions?
calming and controlling unsettled spirits
The warrior elite in Japanese tradition are known as the ________ .
In Japan, the butsudan is ________ .
What Japanese form of minimalist poetry reflects the Zen emphasis on penetrating to the essence of reality?
The word 'Zen' is the Japanese version of what Chinese word?
During what period was political or state Confucianism established in China?
The primary source of Confucius' sayings and teachings on how to govern in the period of Lesser Prosperity is known as the ________ .
The Japanese artistic practice of ikebana involves ________ .
How long is it believed to take an ancestor's spirit to fully leave the world in Japanese tradition?
What is the nenbutsu?
a phrase that is repeatedly chanted as the central practice of pure land buddhism
From what did Sokka Gakkai develop?
At the core of Soka Gakkai is the belief that ________.
personal transformation comes from chanting a sacred mantra
According to the Raëlians, Yahweh is ________ .
The International Society for Krishna Consciousness was founded by ________.
hindu guru in the united states
The term "engram" in Scientology refers to ________.
Where did Wicca emerge around the Second World War?
How did Baha'u'llah understand his purpose?
unify the world
Where are the world headquarters of the Baha'i faith today?
Wallace D. Fard was the founder of ________.
nation of islam
The first modern use of the term Wicca is attributed to ________.
The Chinese term qigong refers to ________.
techniques that allow the bodys energy to flow properly
The trimurti ('three forms') includes which three gods?
Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva
Which of the following is NOT a form of the Goddess?
The Which of the following is NOT a great Classical Hindu epic?
laws of manu
The earliest compositions in the Hindu tradition are the ________ .
In the form of Nataraja, Shiva is commonly portrayed iconographically as a ________ .
Krishna is considered an avatara (incarnation) of which god?
From where does the term 'Hinduism' derive?
The word 'Sind', referring to the region of the river Sindhu (Indus)
The linga, a conical or cylindrical stone column symbolic of creative energy, is associated with which god?
Who was the influential Hindu participant at the 1893 World's Parliament of Religions in Chicago?
The god Ganesha has the head of what animal?
The civilization in the Indus Valley region dating as far back as 2750 BCE is known as the ________ .
The literal meaning of 'karma' is ________ .
Bhakti refers to ________ .
In which Hindu festival do people throw coloured powder on each other?
The phrase "tat tvam asi" ("you are that") refers to ________ .
The connection of Brahman and Atman
To when are the Upanishads approximately dated?
What are the three ways to liberation described in the Gita?
action, knowledge, devotion
The Bhagavad Gita is an extract from what larger work?
The most famous text outlining the norms of moral and social duty according to the caste system is the ________ .
Laws of manu
How many incarnations will Vishnu have in the present cycle of creation, according to Hindu tradition?
The Sanskrit word 'dharma', for Hindus, refers to ________
righteousness, specifically in religious and social obligation
The shudra caste consists of ________
The kshatriya caste consists of ________ .
rulers and warriors
The Atman is the ________ .
The practice of sati involves ________ .
the self-immolation of a widow on her husband's cremation pyre
In what Hindu text is the Creation Hymn found?
The Rig Veda
What American movement incorporated Hindu traditions and scriptures?
What does the term moksha mean?
'liberation' from the cycle of rebirth
Shruti ('that which was heard') literature refers to ________ .
Prasada refers to ________ .
food ritually presented to, then returned by, a deity
What Hindu festival means 'necklace of lights'?
Deepavali (or Divali)
Which of the following was NOT a Vedic god?
Which of the following are types of smrti ('that which is remembered') literature?
All three, the epics (itihasas), the Puranas and the dharmashastras.
In a Hindu wedding, what does the couple take seven steps around together?
The Bhagavad Gita take the form of a conversation between ________ .
Arjuna and Krishna
This experience of Hindus seeing or being seen by a deity or a guru is called ________ .
Bhakti yoga, discussed in the Bhagavad Gita, refers to ________ .
the way of devotion
Scholars date the composition of the Vedas to roughly ________ .
Ayurveda referred to an important system of ________ .
Samsara refers to ________ ,
the continuing cycle of death and rebirth
The origins of the four classes (varnas) is traced to ______
The cosmic sacrifice of Purusha, the 'Supreme Being'
What are the four principal castes that make up Hindu society?
-Brahmins (priests & teachers)
-Kshatriyas (rulers & warriors)
Ritual devotion at home to a deity of spiritual teacher is called __________
Which European explorer opened the way to the Indian subcontinent for a long line of traders, missionaries, and eventually rulers?
Vasco de Gama
The Sant ('holy person' or 'truth') tradition was significant in what geographical location?
What are the dharmashastras?
codes of law and ethics