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Chapter 15: Cannabis
Terms in this set (15)
Cannabis: The plant
Marijuana is a preparation of leafy material from the Cannabis plant that is smoked. Marijuana is classified separately because its effects are varied and complex. Sedation, pain relief and Hallucinations (in large doses). Effects it produces in most users are sufficiently different from the effects of depressants, narcotics, and hallucinogens to merit its separate classification.
Three species: 1.Cannabis Sativa
Orginated in Asia but now grown worldwide. Grown primarily for its fibers, from which hemp rope is made. Grows as a weed in the U.S. and Canada. A lanky plant up to 18 feet high.
2. Cannabis Indica
Grown for its psychoactive resins. Cultivated in many areas of the world. A compact plant 2 to 3 feet high. Potency varies depending on plant genetics and environmental conditions.
3. Cannabis ruderalis
Grown primarily in Russia.
Primary psychoactive agent in Cannabis is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC is concentrated in the resin, most of which is in the flowering tops. Less in the leaves, little in the fibrous stalks. Psychoactive potency of Cannabis preparations depends on the amount of resin present.
Consists of pure resin that has been carefully removed from the surface of leaves and stems. May be less than pure depending on how carefully the resin has been separated from the plant material. Average THC content hashish ranges from 3 to 8 percent. A few batches have tested as high as 20 percent THC.
Consists of dried flowering tops of plants with pistillate flowers (female plants). Male plants are removed from the fields before the female plants are pollinated. Female plants don't put their energy into seed production, thus increasing their potency. Avergae THC content of U.S. sinsemila samples is about 7 to 23 percent.
Consists of the remainder of the Cannabis plant after the top has been picked. Plant material is dried, gorund into a powder, and mixed into drinks or candies. Rare but about equivalent to low grade marijuana consisting of leaves. Average THC content of less than, 1percent.
THC is absorbed rapidly by the blood and travels to the brain and then the rest of the body. Within 30 minutes, most THC is gone from the brain. Peak psychological and cardiovascular effects occur together within 5 to 10 minutes.
THC is absorbed more slowly and the liver transforms in into 11- hydroxy- delta-9-THC. Less THC reaches the brain. Peak effects occur about 90 minutes following ingestion.
Endogenous substance isolated from brain tissue with marijuana- like effects. From ananda, Sanskrit for "bliss", eat, sleep, relax, forget. THC and other cannabinoids bind to two receptors. CB1 receptors, CB2 receptors.
Found primarily in the brain but also unusually widespread throughout the body. Potential actions of cannabisoids are widespread. High density of CB1 receptors in specific brain regions. Basal ganglia (movement coordination), Hippocampus (memory storage), Cerebal cortex (higher cognitive functions), Nucleus accumbens (reward).
Found mainly outside the brain in immune cells. Potential role of cannabinoids in the modulation of immune system.
Acute physiological effects
Increased heart rate, possibly risky for someone with preexisting cardiovascular disease. No human overdose deaths have been reported.
A new generation of synthetic cannbisnoid agonists has been reported to be used recreationally. Products are marketed as natural herbal incense or potpourri under various brand names such as "Spice" or "K2", and have been sold legally in"head shops", convenience stores, and through the internet to those seeking the "marijuanalike high." There is real concern, however, that synthetic cannabinoids may cause negative effects on human health.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 15: Marijuana
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chapter 5- nicotine and tobacco
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