25 terms

week 10 (ch. 21 & 22)

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immediate treatment for shock?
- keeping the patient quiet and warm
- mainting the ABC's of life support--airway, breathing, and circulation
what are colloids?
proteins or other large molecules that stay suspended in the blood for a long period and draw water molecules from the cells/tissue to the blood
what are some colloids?
-normal human serum albumin
- plasma protein fraction
- dextran
- hetastarch (hespan)
what are crystalloids?
- contains electrolytes proportionally to resemble natural plasma
- readily leave the blood and enters cells and tissues
- replaces fluids lost to increased urine output
what are crystalloids classified by?
their tonicity (contraction of dissolved molecules within the solution in relation to plasma
what are the classification for crystalloids?
- isotonics (same concentration of solutes as plasma
- hypertonic (greater concentration of solutes than plasma
hypotonic (lesser concentration of solutes than plasma)
crystalloids are?
- normal saline (isotonic)
- lactated ringer's (isotonic)
- dextrose in NS (hypertonic)
- dextrose in water (hypotonic)
why vasocontrictors administered during shock?
to maintain blood pressure
what are vasoconstrictor drugs?
- dopamine (dopastat)
- norepinephrine (levophed)
- phenylephrine (neo-synephrine)
- epinephrine
what is a SE for dopamine?
dysrhythmias and hypotension
levels of dopamine?
- low doses - increase blood flow through the kidneys
- higher doses - stimulate beta 1 adrenergic receptors causing the heart to beat with more force and increasing CO. Also stimulates alpha 1 receptors causing vasocontriction and raising blood pressure
which of the following is not correct regarding dopamine?
1) at low doses,, dopamine causes increased blood flow to the kidneys
2) at high doses dopamine increases CO
3) dopamine causes vasocontriction and increased blood pressure
4) at high doses, dopamine is used to treat anaphylaxis
4) at high doses, dopamine is used to treat anaphylaxis
what is anaphylaxis?
- natural body defenses produce a hyper response to an antigen
what are drug categories for antidysrhythmic drugs?
- sodium channel blockers (class I)
- beta-adrenergic blockers (class II)
- potassium channel blockers (class III)
- calcium channel blockers (class IV)
- miscellaneous antidysrhythmic drugs
what doe sodium channel blockers do?
slow the rate of impulse conduction through the heart
what are sodium channel blockers used for?
used for ventricular dysrhythmias
what are SE for sodium channel blockers
- due to decreased HR
(hypotension, dizziness, fainting)
what is a sodium channel blocker drug?
- procainamide (procanbid)
- lidocaine (xylocaine)
what do potassium channel blockers do?
blocks potassium ion channels in myocardial cells
what are SE for potassium channel blockers?
- bradycardia, hypotension, worsen dysrhytmias especially after first few doses
Potassium channel blocker drug?
amiodarone
what are calcium channel blockers?
- available to treat supraventricular dysrhythmias
- block Ca+ from entering into myocardial cells and inhibit contraction
an expected outcome of a patient taking an antidysrhythmic drug would be:
1) decreased CO
2) increased CO
3) increased renal insufficiency
4) increased hepatic insufficiency
1) decreased CO
the patient taking an antidysrhythmic must be instructed to notify the physician if:
1) constipation occurs
2) the heart rate is less than 60 beats per minute
3) the rate is greater than 90 beats per minute
4) blood pressure does not decrese
2) the heart rate is less than 60 beats per minute
the patient taking an antidysrhythmic must be instructed to notify the physician if:
1) constipation occurs
2) the heart rate is less than 60 beats per minute
3) the rate is greater than 90 beats per minute
4) blood pressure does not decrese
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