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Sheets of tightly packed cells that cover the body, line the organs, and act as a protective barrier
Supports and binds other tissues, and consist of scattered cells within an extracellular matrix
Responsible for nearly all types of body movement, and made up of the proteins actin and myosin
Divided into functional units called nerve cells, which senses stimuli and transmits signals from one part of the body to another
Animals maintain a relatively constant internal environment, even when the external environment changes significantly
The "target" in homeostasis. Sensors detect stimuli below or above this point and trigger a physiological response to help the body return to the set point
Negative feedback systems
Animal responds to a stimulus in a way that reduces the stimulus (e.g. after exercise, the body temperature rises, so sweating cools the body)
Positive feedback systems
Change in a variable triggers mechanisms that amplify rather than reverse the change (e.g. during childbirth, pressure of baby's head stimulates greater contractions, which cause greater pressure, etc)
Antiparallel arrangement of blood vessels result in warm blood from the core heating cold blood from the extremities
Minerals and preassembled organic molecules that an animal cannot produce from raw materials
Stage of food processing where the body's cells take up small molecules such as amino acids and simple sugars from the digestive tract
Occurs within a cell enclosed by a protective membrane, technique used by sponges
Food is broken down outside cells, allows animals to devour larger food sources, technique used by most animals
One chamber for digestion to take place in. Animals with this have one opening from which food enters and waste is eliminated.
Muscular, ringlike valves that regulate passage of material between digestive compartments
Enzyme in saliva that begins hydrolyzing starch and glycogen into smaller polysaccharides and the disaccharide maltose
Breaks down ECM of meat and plant materials, and kills bacteria. Has a pH of about 2
Hydrolyzes proteins into smaller polypeptides. Secreted as pepsinogen so the cells that produce it aren't digested themselves
Major site of chemical digestion where acid chyme mixes with pancreatic and liver secretions
Begins with breakdown of starch and glycogen by salivary amylase. In the small intestine, pancreatic amylases continue to break them down into the disaccharide maltose. This is broken into its monomers at the wall of the duodenum epithelium
Begins with breakdown of proteins by pepsin in the stomach. In the duodenum, trypsin and cymotrypsin break the polypeptides into smaller chains. Dipeptidases, carboxypeptidase, and aminopeptidase break apart polypeptides into amino acids
Nucleic acid digestion
Starts with hydrolysis of DNA and RNA into nucleotides. Then they are broken into nitrogenous bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. Most enzymes involved are from the pancreas
Starts in the small intestine when bile coats the fat droplets. Then lipase from the pancreas hydrolyzes the droplets
Hepatic portal vessel
Destination of capillaries in villi that drain away nutrients--the hepatic portal vessel takes the nutrients to the liver for distribution
Hormone produced by the duodenum in the presence of fats to slow peristalsis and allow more time for fat digestion
Secretin and cholecystokinin
Hormone secreted by walls of the duodenum and increase the flow of digestive juices from pancreas and gall bladder
Delays impulses from SA node to allow the atria to completely empty before the ventricles contract, located in the lower wall of right atrium
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