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51 terms

PSY 2012 - Chapter 8 Quiz

Psychology in Action Professor Davis Edison State College Spring 2012
STUDY
PLAY
e mental activities involved in acquiring, storing, retrieving, and using knowledge are collectively known as _____.
cognition
Mentally acting upon information by forming ideas, reasoning, solving problems, drawing conclusions, expressing thoughts, and comprehending the thoughts of others is called _____.
thinking
This brain area plays a major role in associating complex ideas, making plans, and allocating attention.
the prefrontal cortex
Mental representations of previously stored sensory experiences are called _____.
mental images
Which of the following persons is using a mental image?
A. Karen is savoring her memory of the chocolate truffle she ate last night.
B. Farique is smugly picturing his new Ferrari.
C. Jamila is mentally reviewing the pitch and timbre of the notes in the new song she rehearsed last night.
D. all of these options
D. all of these options
6. These are examples of abstract concepts.
A. honesty, intelligence, love
B. cars, trucks, motorcycles
C. blue, green, red
D. people, places, things
honesty, intelligence, love
An artificial or formal concept arises from _____.
logical rules or definitions
When you group subcategories within broader concepts or categories, you are creating _____.
hierarchies
This is a representation of the "best" or most typical example of a category.
A. a natural concept
B. an artificial concept
C. a prototype
D. an attribute
a prototype
When shown a picture of a poodle, most adults will first classify it as _____.
a dog
Problem-solving is the act of moving _____.
from a given state to a goal state
When you are identifying facts, distinguishing relevant from irrelevant facts, and defining a goal, you are in the _____ stage of problem-solving
preparation
During the production stage of problem-solving, you should generate _____.
possible solutions
is is a step-by-step procedure that, if followed, will eventually solve a problem.
algorithm
Simple rules used in problem-solving that do not guarantee a solution, but offer a likely short-cut to it are called _____.
heuristics
When confronted with a problem, persistence in using strategies that have worked in the past rather than new ones is called _____.
a mental set
The tendency to think of an object functioning only in its usual or customary way is called _____.
functional fixedness
An interior designer on the TV show "Trading Spaces" used the frame of a car to create a child's bed. This is an example of _____.
overcoming functional fixedness
When you use a knife as a screwdriver, you have _____.
overcome functional fixedness
The tendency to seek out and pay attention only to information that confirms preexisting beliefs, while ignoring contradictory evidence is called _____.
the confirmation bias
Judging the likelihood or probability of events based on how easily other such events can be recalled is known as the _____ heuristic.
availability
_____ is the ability to produce valuable outcomes in a novel way.
Creativity
Thinking that produces many alternative ideas is called _____.
divergent
_____ thinking narrows a list of alternatives toward a single correct answer.
Convergent
To develop an idea for a research paper in his English class, Shaleke should probably use _____ thinking.
divergent
Sternberg and Lubart's investment theory of creativity suggests that creative people _____.
move on to unpopular ideas once past ideas are highly valued
The statement, "Creative people buy low and sell high in the market of ideas" is most associated with _____.
Sternberg and Lubart's investment theory of creativity
__________is measured by the capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment.
Intelligence
The g factor originally proposed by Charles Spearman is best defined as _____.
general intelligence
Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?
A. Spearman: intelligence = general mental abilities
B. Thurstone: intelligence = seven primary mental abilities
C. Guilford: intelligence is influenced by up to 120 factors
D. Cattell: theory of multiple intelligences
Cattell: theory of multiple intelligences
This intelligence is genetically and biologically determined.
gf
Cattell proposed that there were two types of g" _____.
fluid and crystallized
_____ intelligence is relatively independent of education and includes reasoning, memory, and speed of processing, which declines slowly as people age.
Fluid
Physicians, teachers, musicians, and politicians continue to work well into old age largely due to _____, which tends to increase over time.
crystallized intelligence (gc)
The idea that people differ in their "profiles of intelligence" showing a unique pattern of strengths and weaknesses, is related to _____.
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences
The first IQ test to be used widely in the US is the _____.
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is _____.
your mental age divided by your chronological age and multiplied by 100
A deviation IQ is _____.
based on how far your test score is from the norm
The Weschler Intelligence Scales yields _____.
an overall intelligence score & a verbal score
This is a measure of the consistency and stability of test scores when re-administered at different times
reliability
If a test is valid, then its scores will be useful in _____.
predicting the test-taker's behavior in a similar situation
The controversy over IQ tests in the United States is related to problems with _____.
validity
Mental retardation applies to an individual with significant deficits in adaptive functioning and a score below _____ on a standard IQ test.
70
Only about _____% of the general population have mental retardation and, of that number, only _____ are moderately to profoundly retarded.
1-3%; 14-16%
The cause(s) of mental retardation is(are) _____.
genetic abnormalities, environmental factors, & many times unknown
People with mental retardation who demonstrate exceptional ability in specific areas are called _____.
savants
Intellectually gifted people score in the top _____ percent on a standard IQ test.
1-2
Ethnic group differences in IQ scores can be due to _____.
genetic influences, socioeconomic differences, & cultural biases in IQ tests
This is a psychological predicament in which a person experiences doubt about his or her performance due to negative beliefs about his or her group's ability.
a stereotype threat
The stereotype threat effects the IQ scores of which of the following groups?
women, white male athletes, & the elderly
Every time you use information and engage in mental activity such as forming ideas, reasoning, solving problems, drawing conclusions, expressing thoughts, or comprehending the thoughts of others, you are thinking. Mental activity or thinking is also known as:
Cognition