Who was the leader of the German Confederation after Austria was forced out?
Did Germans like being under the control?
No, many German nationalists hated the idea of being under their rule.
Was William I conservative or liberal?
Who was William I (German) minister-president?
Who was Bismarck the leader of when William I picked him to be the prime minister?
What was Bismarck called and why?
He was called the Iron Chancellor because of his determination to weld together the German nation with "blood and iron" if necessary.
Whose support did Bismarck need to be successful?
The middle class.
How did Bismarck build up the strength of the Prussian military?
He collected taxes from the people. Parliament decided not to improve the tax increases but Bismarck went and collected them anyway and the people paid for it.
What two territories did Denmark intend to annex?
Holstein and Schleswig.
How did Bismarck respond to Denmark's intentions of annexing Holstein and Schleswig?
He got Austria to join Prussia in attacking Denmark. Then once they beat the Danes Bismarck knew that it would cause conflict between Austria and Prussia - exactly what he wanted!
Who did Bismarck go to for neutrality in case there was a conflict between Prussia and Austria?
He went to Napoleon III of France to ensure French neutrality if a war between Prussia and Austria broke out.
Now Bismarck was waiting for a conflict with Austria. How did Bismarck provoke it?
When there was a conflict in Schleswig-Holstein in 1866, Prussia sent in troops without notifying Austria. So Austria declared war! (Seven Weeks' War).
What is the name of the major battle in the Seven Weeks' War?
Battle of Sadowa (aka Battle of Koniggratz).
Who beat whom in the Seven Weeks War?
Prussia beat Austria.
What was the peace settlement at the end of the Seven Weeks' War and how did the Prussians treat the Austrians?
The Peace of Prague. THe Prussians were wise enough to treat the Austrians well because he didn't want any bitter enemies on his southern border as he pursued unification of the German nation.
What territory was Austria forced to turn over to Italy? What else was Austria forced to accept?
Venice. The beakup of the German Confederation and the creation of the North German Confederation. (A military alliance of 22 northern German states with Prussia as the leading state. Austria was also forced to pay a small amount of war damages.
Why was it good that Austria did not hate Prussia?
Because Austria remained neutral in 1870 when Prussia invaded France. (Franco-Prussian War).
How did Bismarck get the southern German states to want to join the rest of the German states?
He began to plot a war with France so that the southern states would become nationalistic and want to join the North.
The dramatic increase in Prussian power alarmed who and how did Bismarck respond?
It alarmed Napoleon III of France and the French nationalists. Bismarck was delighted because he wanted a war.
Napoleon III sent a diplomat to meet with whom where?
To meet with King William I at Ems, Prussia.
What did this diplomat demand of King William I?
That no Hohencollern (Prussian ruling family) would ever rule Spain. (Bismarck had attempted to get a Hohenzollern on the throne in Spain).
How did William I respond to the diplomat from France?
He refused his request and explained the event to Bismarck in a telegram which Bismarck took and reworded so that it sounded insulting to France and released to the newspapers!
What was the name of the event where Bismarck released the faulty telegram to the newspapers?
The Ems Dispatch. It intensified feelings of war with both countries.
When France declared war on Prussia how did the other German states respond?
The southern German states joined the north just as Bismarck had hoped!
How did the Franco-Prussian War go for France?
It didn't go well for France, Napoleon III was captured only one month into the war and Prussia took control of Paris in 1871.
What treaty ended the Franco-Prussian War?
The Peace of Frankfurt.
Explain the Peace of Frankfurt.
Harsh toward France. 1. charged massive reparation of 5 billion francs. 2. took Alsace-Lorraine from France and made it part of Germany. 3. Required the French to accept German army occupation until reparations were paid. 4. recognized William I of Prussia as Emperor William I of Germany.
When was Germany finally unified and what was it known as?
1871 and it was known as the Second Reich.
The constitution that created Germany also created two houses known as what?
Bundesrat (upper house - like the British House of Lords) and Reichstag (lower house - like the Houose of Commons).
How were the Reichstag's representatives elected?
Ther were elected by universal manhood suffrage. They had the power to accept or reject the budget and could block or change legislation.
Who did Bismarck want to remain supreme in Germany?
The Junkers and the monarchy.
What was the name of Bismarck struggle again Catholicism?
Bismarck felt that the Catholic Center Party was more loyal to the Pope than to germany. He believed the Catholics would follow the Pope over the Emperor (oh no!).
What steps did Bismarck take in his "struggle for civilization?"
1. Removed all Jesuits from Germany. 2. Passed the May Laws. All schools would be placed under government control, religious orders (monks for example) were banned, and the state would conduct all marriages.
How did the Kulturkampf go for Bismarck?
It backfired. The Catholic Center Party actually gained more power because of it and more seats in the Reichstag. The May laws were partially reversed, but the state still controlled education and marriage.
How did Bismarck respond to Socialism?
First he introduced a law to ban all socialist meetings and publications. The Social Democratic Part still met in secret and managed to win 24 seats in the Reichstag. Bismarck changed his strategy. Instead of fighting them, he tried to please them.
How did Bismarck try to please the Socialists?
1. Sickness Insurance Law - provided financial support to workers who missed work due to illness. 2. Accident Insurance Law - provided medical insurance for people hurt at work. 3. Old Age Insurance Law - protected retirees with a pension.
Did Bismark's Socialist laws gain him the support of the Socialists?
No. They did nothing to reduce public support for the socialists, and not Bismarck.
Who was Emperor after William I died?
Frederick III but he only lived for 91 days then it was passed to his son William II.
William II wanted direct control and when Bismarck got all winey like he had done with William I he threatened to resign (thinking William II would beg him to stay like William I had done) so what did William II do?