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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Determinate cleavage
  2. From blastula to gastrula
  3. Gametogenesis
  4. Cleavage
  5. Yolk sac
  1. a once implanted in the uterus, cell migrations transform the single-cell layer of the blastula into a three-layered structure called teh gastrula; these three primary germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm) are responsible for the differential development of the tissues, organs, and systems of the body at later stages of growth
  2. b after the intitial cell division the fate of the resulting daughter cells is determined -- they can only develop into specific tissues, not the whole organisms.
  3. c each embryonic development is characterized by a series of rapid mitotic divisions knows as cleavage; these divisions lead to an increase in cell number without a corresponding growth in cell protoplasm (i.e., the total volume of cytoplasm remains constant); thus, cleavage results in progressively smaller cells, with an increasing ratio of nuclear-to-cytoplasmic material; cleavage also increases the surface-to-volum ration of each cell, thereby improving gas and nutrient exchange; this early developmental process consists of a series of very rapid, synchronous mitotic divisions that converts the zygote's single large cell into a solid ball of cells, known as teh morula, then into the blastula
  4. d eggs develop in women and sperm develop in men, which results in the possibility of reproduction occuring
  5. e (membrane of eggs) encloses the yolk; blood vessels in the yolk sac transfer food to the developing embryo

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. the body organs begin to form; in this process, the cells interact, differentiate, change physical shape, proliferate, and migrate
  2. the placenta and the umbilical cord are outgrowths of the four extra-embryonic membranes formed during development: the amnion, chorion, allantois, and yolk sac; the amnion is a thin, tough membrane containing a watery fluid called amniotic fluid; amniotic fluid acts as a shock absorber of external pressure and localized pressure from the uterine contraction during labor; placenta formation begins with the chorion, a membrane that completely surrounds the amnion; a third membrane, the allantois, develops as an outpocketing of the gut; the blood vessels of the allantoid wall enlarge and become the umbilical vessels, which will connect teh fetus to teh developing placenta; the yolk sac, the site of early developmental blood vessels, becomes associated with the umbilical vessels
  3. early development within the body of the mother protects the young; certain animals, including marsupials and some tropical fish, develop in the mother without a placenta; without a placenta, exchange of food and oxygen between teh young and the mother is limited; the young may be born very early in development
  4. the middle primary germ layer in an animal embryo; develops into the notochord, the lining of the coelom, muscle, skeleton, gonads, kidneys, and most of the circulatory system in species that have thses structures
  5. a tube of infolded ectodermal cells that runs along the anterior-posterior axis of a vertebrate, just dorsal to the notochord; it will give rise to teh nervous system

5 True/False questions

  1. Notochorda longitudinal, flexible rod made of tightly packed mesodermal cells that runs along the anterior-posterior axis of a chordate (member of the phylum chordata) in the dorsal part of teh body


  2. Embryologythe study of the development of a unicellular zygote into a complete, multicellular organism; in the course of nine months, a unicellular human zygote undergoes cell division, cellular differentiation, and morphogenesis in preparation for life outside teh uterus; much of what is known about mammalian development stems from the study of less complex organisms such as sea urchins and frogs


  3. Chordatemember of the phylum chordata, aimals that at some point during their development have a notochord; a dorsal, hollow nerve cord; pharyngeal slits or clefts; and a muscular, post-anal tail


  4. Endodermthe outermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; gives rise to the outer covering and, in some phyla, the nervous system, inner ear, and lense of the eye


  5. Amnion(membrane of eggs) lines the inside of the shell; it is a moist membrane that permits gas exchance