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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Organogenesis
  2. Blastula
  3. Placenta and Umbilical cord formation
  4. Blastocoel
  5. Nonplacental internal development
  1. a a hollow ball of cells that marks the end of the cleavage stage during early embryonic development in animals
  2. b early development within the body of the mother protects the young; certain animals, including marsupials and some tropical fish, develop in the mother without a placenta; without a placenta, exchange of food and oxygen between teh young and the mother is limited; the young may be born very early in development
  3. c the placenta and the umbilical cord are outgrowths of the four extra-embryonic membranes formed during development: the amnion, chorion, allantois, and yolk sac; the amnion is a thin, tough membrane containing a watery fluid called amniotic fluid; amniotic fluid acts as a shock absorber of external pressure and localized pressure from the uterine contraction during labor; placenta formation begins with the chorion, a membrane that completely surrounds the amnion; a third membrane, the allantois, develops as an outpocketing of the gut; the blood vessels of the allantoid wall enlarge and become the umbilical vessels, which will connect teh fetus to teh developing placenta; the yolk sac, the site of early developmental blood vessels, becomes associated with the umbilical vessels
  4. d the body organs begin to form; in this process, the cells interact, differentiate, change physical shape, proliferate, and migrate
  5. e the fluid-filled cavity that forms in the center of a blastula

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. (membrane of eggs) lines the inside of the shell; it is a moist membrane that permits gas exchance
  2. a developing human from the 9th week of gestation until birth; has all the major structures of an adult
  3. the embryo implants outside the uterus; for example, in the fallopian tube; an embryo cannot be maintained for long outside of teh uterus; it will abort spntaneously, and hemorrhaging will follow
  4. a tube of infolded ectodermal cells that runs along the anterior-posterior axis of a vertebrate, just dorsal to the notochord; it will give rise to teh nervous system
  5. by the end of gastrulation, regions of the germ layers begin to develop into a rudimentary nervous system; this process is known as neurulation; a rod of mesodermal cells, called teh notochord, develops along the longitudinal axis just under the dorsal layer of the ectoderm; the notochord has an inductive effect on the overlying ectoderm, causing it to bend inward and form a groove along the dorsal surface of teh embryo; the dorsal ectoderm folds on either side of the groove; these neural folds grow upwards and finally fuse, forming a closed tube; this is the neural tube, which give rise to the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system); once the neural tube is formed, it detaches from teh seurface ectoderm; the cells at the tip of each neural fold are called neural crest cells; these cells migrate laterally and give rise to many components of the peripheral nervous system, including the sensory ganglia, autonomic ganglia, adrenal medulla, and schwann cells

5 True/False questions

  1. Second trimesterthe seventh and eighth months are characterized by continued rapid growth and further brain development; during the ninth month, antibodies are transported by highly selective active transport from teh mother to the fetus for protection against foreign matter; the growth rate slows and the fetus become less active, as it has less room to move about

          

  2. Umbilical cordThe cord that connects the developing embryo or fetus with the placenta and through which run the umbilical arteries and vein. The matrix (the substance) of the umbilical cord is known as Wharton's jelly and is a rich source of stem cells. At birth the umbilical cord measures about 20 inches (50 cm) in length. The cord is clamped and cut after birth and its residual tip forms the umbilicus (bellybutton).

          

  3. Gametogenesisthe body organs begin to form; in this process, the cells interact, differentiate, change physical shape, proliferate, and migrate

          

  4. Mesodermthe middle primary germ layer in an animal embryo; develops into the notochord, the lining of the coelom, muscle, skeleton, gonads, kidneys, and most of the circulatory system in species that have thses structures

          

  5. Fertilizationby the end of gastrulation, regions of the germ layers begin to develop into a rudimentary nervous system; this process is known as neurulation; a rod of mesodermal cells, called teh notochord, develops along the longitudinal axis just under the dorsal layer of the ectoderm; the notochord has an inductive effect on the overlying ectoderm, causing it to bend inward and form a groove along the dorsal surface of teh embryo; the dorsal ectoderm folds on either side of the groove; these neural folds grow upwards and finally fuse, forming a closed tube; this is the neural tube, which give rise to the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system); once the neural tube is formed, it detaches from teh seurface ectoderm; the cells at the tip of each neural fold are called neural crest cells; these cells migrate laterally and give rise to many components of the peripheral nervous system, including the sensory ganglia, autonomic ganglia, adrenal medulla, and schwann cells