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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Fetus
  2. Yolk sac
  3. Neural crest cells
  4. Gestation
  5. Nonplacental internal development
  1. a pregnancy; the state of carrying developing young within the female reproductive tract; human pregnancy is about 9 months (266 days) and can be subdivided into three trimesters
  2. b a developing human from the 9th week of gestation until birth; has all the major structures of an adult
  3. c in vertebrates, groups of cells along the sides of the neural tube where it pinches off from the ectoderm; the cells migrate to various parts of teh embryo and form pigment cells in the skin and parts of the skull, teeth, adrenal glands, and peripheral nervous system
  4. d (membrane of eggs) encloses the yolk; blood vessels in the yolk sac transfer food to the developing embryo
  5. e early development within the body of the mother protects the young; certain animals, including marsupials and some tropical fish, develop in the mother without a placenta; without a placenta, exchange of food and oxygen between teh young and the mother is limited; the young may be born very early in development

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. childbirth is accomplished by labor, a series of strong unterine contractions; labor can be divided into three distinct stages; in teh first stage, the cervix thins out and dilates, and the amniotic sac ruptures, releasing tis fluids; during this time, contractions are relatively mild; the second stage is characterized by rapid contractions, resulting in the birth of the baby, followed by the cutting of the umbilical cord; during the final stage, the uterus contracts, expelling the placenta and the umbilical cord
  2. a longitudinal, flexible rod made of tightly packed mesodermal cells that runs along the anterior-posterior axis of a chordate (member of the phylum chordata) in the dorsal part of teh body
  3. the study of the development of a unicellular zygote into a complete, multicellular organism; in the course of nine months, a unicellular human zygote undergoes cell division, cellular differentiation, and morphogenesis in preparation for life outside teh uterus; much of what is known about mammalian development stems from the study of less complex organisms such as sea urchins and frogs
  4. fter the initial cell division the fate of the resulting daughter cells is not determined -- each has the potent ial to develop into an entire organism. Sometimes this occurs; resulting individuals are genetically identical (in humans, they are called identical twins)
  5. an egg can be fertilized within 12-24 hours after ovulation; fertilization occurs in the lateral, widest portion of the oviduct when sperm traveling from the vagina encounter an egg; if more than one egg is fertilized, fraternal twins may be conceived

5 True/False questions

  1. Determinate cleavageafter the intitial cell division the fate of the resulting daughter cells is determined -- they can only develop into specific tissues, not the whole organisms.


  2. Ectodermthe innermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; lines the archeenteron and gives rise to the liver, pancreas, lungs, and the lining of the digestive tract in species that have these structures


  3. Organogenesisthe body organs begin to form; in this process, the cells interact, differentiate, change physical shape, proliferate, and migrate


  4. Blastulaa hollow ball of cells that marks the end of the cleavage stage during early embryonic development in animals


  5. External developmentthe early development of many animals occurs outside of the mother's body, on land or in water; fish and amphibians lay eggs that are fertilized externally in the water; the embryo develops within the egg, feeding on nutrients stored in the yolk; reptiles, bird, and some mammals (like the duck-billed platypus) develop externally on land; fertillization occurs internally, and the fertilized egg is then laid; eggs provide protection for teh developing embryo; the eggs also include the following embryonic membranes: chorion, allantois, amnion, yolk sac