Congress of Vienna
Terms in this set (22)
1. Balance of Power
4. Collective Security
5. Buffer States
Balance of Power
No one nation will be allowed to dominate Europe
Most ancient royal houses will be restored to their thrones
Most "good" nations that lose territories will gain new territories
The major powers must ally to keep peace & balance of power
France surrounded by nations strong enough to withstand future aggression (i.e. the Netherlands/Belgium, Prussia's Rhineland, Switzerland, Spain)
3. Great Britain
Emperor Francis I (host) and Foreign Minister Metternich
Tsar Alexander I and Foreign Minister Nesselrode
Foreign Minister Castlereagh and the Duke of Wellington
King Frederick William III and Ministers Hardenberg and Humboldt
Foreign Minister Talleyrand
France's Major Decisions
1. The House of Bourbon is restored to the throne (Louis XVIII).
2. Occupied by the Allies until a 700,000,000 franc indemnity is paid off.
3. Most colonies and trading posts in the West Indies and India returned by Britain.
4. Boundaries set at those of 1790 (Belgium and the Rhineland are lost)
Holland's Major Decisions
1. The House of Orange is restored, and elevated from stadtholder to king.
2. The Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) given to Netherlands; Luxembourg in personal union w/ House of Orange and a member of the German Confederation
3. British seizure of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Cape Province (South Africa) is recognized; most other Dutch colonies are restored.
Germany's Major Decisions
1. The Confederation of the Rhine is dissolved and replaced with a new Austrian-dominated "German Confederation" of 39 independent states.
2. The Rhineland is awarded to Prussia (See also III. E. 3. below in re Poland).
3. Two-fifths of Saxony is awarded to Prussia; the Saxon king keeps his crown.
4. Most princes of states east of the Rhine are restored to their thrones.
5. Most of Napoleon's territorial adjustments east of the Rhine are retained.
6. Germany still divided and dominated by Austria (except for Prussia).
Italy's Major Decisions
1. The Kingdom of Italy is dissolved.
2. The House of Savoy is restored to the throne of a restored and enlarged Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia (Genoa annexed).
3. Lombardy (Milan) and Venetia (Venice) are awarded to Austria.
4. The Papal States are restored to the Pope.
5. House of Bourbon restored to throne of Kingdom of Two Sicilies (Naples & Sicily).
6. The thrones of most of the remaining Italian states are awarded to Hapsburg princes or to former houses sympathetic with Austria (e.g. Tuscany).
7. Italy remains divided and dominated by Austria (except for Piedmont).
Poland's Major Decisions
1. The Grand Duchy of Warsaw is dissolved.
2. Galicia is restored to Austria.
3. West Prussia, Danzig and Posen are restored to Prussia.
4. Central Poland becomes an autonomous Kingdom of Poland (capital, Warsaw), linked to Russia through a personal union between the nations' two crowns; Tsar Alexander is recognized as the hereditary king of this so-called Congress Poland.
5. Cracow is made a free city-state republic (later annexed by Austria).
Russia's Major Decisions
1. The conquest of Bessarabia (Moldova) from Turkey is recognized.
2. A personal union between the crowns of Russia and Finland is recognized; Tsar Alexander is recognized as the hereditary Grand Duke of an autonomous Finland.
3. See III. E.
4. above in re the "Congress Kingdom" of Poland.
Great Britain's Major Decisions
1. Personal union between the crowns of United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Hannover is restored; this lasts until Queen Victoria's accession in 1837; separate states thereafter, since the "Salic Law" bars women from German thrones.
2. UK's conquest of Malta (in the central Mediterranean, near Sicily) is recognized.
3. UK's protectorate over the Ionian Islands (at the mouth of the Adriatic) is recognized.
4. UK's possession of Gibraltar (at the mouth of west. Mediterranean) is recognized.
5. UK's seizure of Heligoland (in the North Sea, near Hamburg and the mouth of the Elbe River) is recognized.
6. See III. B. 3. above in re the colonies of Ceylon and Cape Province.
1. Personal union between the crowns of Sweden and Norway (taken from Denmark), to compensate Sweden for the loss of Finland (given to Russia); the new House of Bernadotte in Sweden is recognized by the Great Powers.
2. Switzerland is restored to its original borders and neutral independence.
3. France's former Illyrian Provinces (on the Dalmatian coast of Croatia, along the Adriatic) are restored to Austria.
4. The House of Borbón is restored in Spain; all Spanish colonies in the Americas are independent by 1830 (except for Cuba and Puerto Rico).
5. The House of Bragança is restored in Portugal; Brazil is independent by 1825; the Portuguese crown prince is then recognized as the emperor of Brazil.
Originally composed of Russia, Austria, Prussia and Great Britain; France is admitted (1818), and it becomes the Quintuple Alliance; Britain withdraws (1822), and it's the Quadruple Alliance again; goal: keep the peace.
The brainchild of Tsar Alexander; its leading members were the sovereigns of Russia, Austria and Prussia, but all European monarchs eventually join, except the British king, the Turkish sultan and the Pope; its members pledge to govern by "Christian" principles; actually, it's a very reactionary league dedicated to maintaining the status quo of the Congress system by crushing liberalism, nationalism and revolutionary activity wherever they arise.
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