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The Intrapsychic Domain
Terms in this set (168)
According to Freud, a source of energy within each person that motivates him or her to do one thing and not another. In Freud's view, it is this energy that motivates all human activity.
Freud believed that strong innate forces provided all the energy in the psychic system. He called these forces instincts. In Freud's initial formulation there were two fundamental categories of instincts: self-preservation instincts and sexual instincts. In his later formulations, Freud collapsed the self-preservation and sexual instincts into one which he called life instincts.
Freud postulated that humans have a fundamental instincts toward destruction and that this instinct is often manifest in aggression toward others. The two instincts were usually referred to as libido, for the life instinct, and thanatos, for the death instinct. While the libido was generallly considered sexual in nature, Freud also used this term to refer to any need-satisfying, life sustaining, or pleasure-oriented urge.
Freud postulated that humans have a fundamental instinct toward destruction and that this instinct is often manifest in aggression towards others. Thanatos is considered the death instinct also using this term to any urge to destroy, harm, or aggress against others or oneself.
That part of the mind that contains all the thoughts, feelings, and images that a person s presently aware of. Whatever a person is currently thinking about is in his or her conscious mind.
Any information that a person is not presently aware of, but that could easily be retrieved and made conscious, is found in the preconscious mind.
That part of the mind that the conscious mind is unaware of.
Following an injury or stroke that damages the primary vision center in the brain, a person may lose some or all of his or her ability to see. The eyes still brings information in to the brain but the brain center responsible for object recognition fails. People who suffer this "cortical" blindness often display an interesting capacity to make judgements about objects that they truly cannot see.
The notion that, when confronted with a decision, if a person can put it out of their conscious mind for a period of time, then the unconscious mind will continue to deliberate on it, helping the person arrive at a sudden and ofter correct decision some time later.
The most primitive part of the human mind. Freud believed this was something we were born with and as the source of all drives and urges. Like a spoiled child: selfish, impulsive, and pleasure loving. Operates strictly according to pleasure principle, which is the desire for immediate gratification.
The desire for immediate gratification. The id operates according to this principle; therefore it does not listen to reason, does not follow logic, has no values or morals (other than immediate gratification), and has little patience.
primary process thinking
Thinking without the logical rules of conscious thought or an anchor in reality. Dreams and fantasies are examples of this. Although this does not follow the normal rules of reality Freud believed there were principles at work in this and that these principles can be discovered.
If an urge from the id requires some external object or person, and that object or person is not available, the id may create a mental image or fantasy of that object or person to satisfy its needs. Mental energy is invested in that fantasy and the urge is temporarily satisfied.
The part of the mind that constrains the id to reality. According to Freud, it develops in the one to three years of life. Operates according to the reality principle. It understands the urges of the id are often in conflict with social and physical reality, and that direct expression of id impulses must therefore be redirected or postponed.
In psychoanalysis, it is the counterpart of the pleasure principle. It refers to guiding behavior according to the demands of reality and relies on the strengths of the ego to provide such guidance.
secondary process thinking
The ego engages in this, refering to the development and devising of strategies for problem solving and obtaining satisfaction. Often this process involves taking into account the constraints of physical reality, about when and how to express some desire or urge.
The part of personality that internalizes the values, morals, and ideals of society. It makes us feel guilty, ashamed, or embarrassed when we do something wrong, and makes us feel pride when we do something right. Sets moral goals and ideals of perfection and is the source of our judgements that something is good or bad. The main tool to this enforcing what is right and wrong is the emotion of guilt.
Strategies for coping with anxiety and threats to self-esteem.
Fear occurs in response to some real, external threat to the person. For example, being confronted by a large, aggressive looking man with a knife while taking a short cut through an ally would elicit this fear in most people.
Occurs when there is a direct conflict between the id and the ego. The danger is that the ego may lose control over some unacceptable desire of the id. For example, a man who worries excessively that he might blurt out some unacceptable thought or desire in public is beset by this anxiety.
Caused by a conflict between the id and the ego and the superego. For example, a person who suffers from chronic shame or feelings of guilt over not living up to "proper" standards, even though such standards might not be attainable, is experiencing this anxiety.
One of the first defense mechanisms discussed by Freud; refers to the process of preventing unacceptable thoughts, feelings or urges from reaching conscious awareness.
fundamental attribution error
When bad events happen to others, people have a tendency to attribute blame to some characteristic of the person, whereas when bad events happen to oneself, people have a tendency to blame the situation.
An unconscious defense mechanism that involves avoiding the recognition that one has certain inappropriate urges or unacceptable feelings toward a specific other. Those feelings then get displaced onto another person or object that is more appropriate or acceptable.
A defense mechanism that involves generating acceptable reasons for outcomes that might otherwise be unacceptable. The goal is to reduce anxiety by coming up with an explanation for some even that is easier to accept than the real reason.
A defense mechanism that refers to an attempt to stifle the expression of an unacceptable urge; a person may continually display a flurry of behavior that indicates the opposite impulse. This make it possible for psychoanalysts to predict that sometimes people will do exactly the opposite of what you might otherwise think they would do. It also alerts us to be sensitive to instances when a person is doing something in excess.
A defense mechanism based on the notion that sometimes we see in others those traits and desires that we find most upsetting in ourselves. We literally project or attribute our own unacceptable qualities onto others.
false consensus effect
The tendency many people have to assume that others are similar to them (i.e. extraverts think that many people are as extraverted as they are). Thinking that many other people share your own traits, preferences, or motivations.
A defense mechanism that refers to the channeling of unacceptable sexual or aggressive instincts into socially desired activities. For Freud, this is the most adaptive defense mechanism. A common example is going out to chop wood when you are angry rather than acting on that anger or even engaging in other less adaptive defense mechanisms such as displacement.
psychosexual stage theory
According to Freud, all persons pass through a set series of stages in personality development. At each of the first three stages, young children must face and resolve specific conflicts which revolve around way of obtaining a type of sexual gratification. Children seek sexual gratification at each stage by investing libidinal energy in a specific body part. Each stage in the developmental process is named after the body part in which sexual energy is invested.
According to Erikson, if a developmental crisis is not successfully and adaptively resolved, personality development could become arrested and the person would continue to have a fixation on that crisis in development. According to Freud, if a child fails to fully resolve a conflict at a particular stage of development, he or she may get stuck in that stage. If a child stuck at a specific stage he or she exhibits a less mature approach to obtaining sexual gratification.
The first stage in Freud's psychosexual stages of development. This stage occurs during the initial 18 months after birth. During this time, the main sources of pleasure and tension reduction are the mouth, lips, and tongue. Adults who still obtain pleasure from taking in especially through the mouth might be fixated at this stage. (overeating, smoking, and excessive talking)
The second stage in Freud's psychosexual stages of development. This stage occurs between the ages of 18 months and three years. At this stage the anal sphincter is the source of sexual pleasure, and the child obtains pleasure from first expelling feces and then during toilet training, from retaining feces. Adults who are compulsive, overly neat, rigid, and never messy are according to psychoanalytic theory, likely to be fixated on this stage.
The third stage in Freud's psychosexual stages of development. This stage occurs between three and five years of age, during which time the child discovers that he has (or she discovers that she does not have) a penis. This stage also includes the awakening of sexual desire directed, according to Freud, toward the parent of the opposite sex.
For boys, the main conflict in Freud's phallic stage. It is a boy's unconscious wish to have his mother all to himself by eliminating the father.
Freud argued that little boys come to believe that their father might make a preemptive Oedipal strike and take away what is at the root of the Oedipal conflict: the boys penis. This fear of losing his penis drives the little boy into giving up his sexual desire for his mother.
A developmental process in children. It consists of wanting to become like the same sex parent. In classic psychoanalysis, it marks the beginning of the resolution of the Oedipal or Electra conflicts and the successful resolution of the phallic stage. Freud believed that the resolution of the phallic stage was both the beginning of the superego and morality and the start of the adult gender role.
The female counterpart of castration anxiety, which occurs during the phallic stage for girls around three to five years of age.
Within the psychoanalytic theory of personality development, the female counterpart to the Oedipal complex; both refer to the phallic stage of development.
The fourth stage in Freud's psychosexual stages of development. This stage occurs from around the age of six until puberty. Freud believed few specific sexual conflicts exist during this time, and was thus a period of psychological rest.Subsequent psychoanalysts have argued that much development occurs during this time, such as learning to make decisions for oneself, interacting and making friends with others, developing an identity, and learning the meaning of work. This period ends with the sexual awakening brought about by puberty.
The final stage in Freud's psychosexual stages of development. This stage begins around age 12 and lasts throughout ones adult life. Here the libido is focused on the genitals, but not in the manner of self-manipulation associated with the phallic stage. People reach this stage with full psychic energy if they have resolved the conflicts of the prior stages.
A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy (a technique for helping individuals who are experiencing some mental disorder or even relatively minor problems with living). This can be thought of as theory about the major components and mechanisms of personality, as well as a method for deliberately restructuring personality.
Patients relax, let their minds wander, and say whatever comes into their minds. Patients often say things that surprise or embarrass them. By relaxing the censor that screens everyday thoughts, this allows potentially important material into conscious awareness.
A technique Freud taught for uncovering the unconscious material in a dream by interpreting the content of a dream. Freud called dreams the royal road to the unconscious.
What a dream actually contains, according to Freud.
What the elements of the dream actually represent, according to Freud.
Psychoanalysts interpret dreams by deciphering how unacceptable impulses and urges are transformed by the unconscious into symbols in the dream.
The idea that what a person "sees" in an ambiguous figure, such as an inkblot, reflects his or her personality. People are thought to project their own personalities into what they report seeing in such an ambiguous stimuli.
One of the three levels of cognition that are of interest to personality psychologist. This is the making sense of , or explaining, various events in the world.
In psychoanalysis, through many interpretations, a patient is gradually led to an understand of the unconscious source of his or her problems.
When a patient's defenses are threatened by a probing psychoanalyst, the patient may unconsciously set up obstacles to progress. This signifies the important unconscious material is coming to the fore, it becomes an integral part of the interpretations the analyst offers to the patient.
A term from psychoanalytic therapy referring to the patient reacting to the analyst as if he or she were an important figure form the patient's own life. the patient displaces past or present (negative and positive0 feelings toward someone from his or her own life onto the analyst. Reenactment.
Memories that have "been" implanted by well meaning therapists or others interrogating a subject about some event.
Imagination inflation effect
A memory is elaborated upon in the imagination, leading the person to confuse the imagined event with events that actually happened.
It is accepted as fact that humans have constructive memory; that is, memory contributes to or influences in various ways what is recalled. Recalled memories are rarely distortion-free, mirror images of the facts.
The tendencies to look only for evidence that confirms a previous hunch, and not to look for evidence that might disconfirm a belief.
In the cognitive view of the unconscious, the content of the unconscious mind is assumed to operate just like thoughts in consciousness. Thoughts are unconscious because they are not in conscious awareness, not because they have been repressed or because they represent unacceptable urges or wishes.
The psychoanalytic idea that info that is unconscious (e.g. a repressed wish) can actually motivate or influence subsequent behavior. This notion was promoted by Freud and formed the basis for his ideas about the unconscious sources of mental disorders and other problems with living. Many psychologists agree with the idea of the unconscious, but there is less agreement today about whether info that is unconscious can have much of an influence on behavior.
Perception that bypasses conscious awareness, usually achieved through very brief exposure times, typically less than 30 milliseconds.
Technique to make associated material more accessible to conscious awareness than material that is not primed. Research using subliminal primes demonstrates that info can get into the mind, and have some influence on it, without going through conscious experience.
Freud's version of psychoanalysis focused on the id as something we are born with and as a source of all drives and urges. The id is like a spoiled child: selfish, impulsive and pleasure loving. According to Freud, the id operates strictly according to the pleasure principle, which is the desire for immediate gratification.
Post-Fruedian psychoanalysts felt that the ego deserved more attention and that it performed many constructive functions. Erikson emphasized the ego as a powerful and independent part of personality, involved in mastering the environment, achieving one's goals, and hence in establishing one's identity.
Erikson's term refers to the desperation, anxiety, and confusion a person feels when he or she has not developed a strong sense of identity. This is a common experience during adolescence, but for some people it occurs later in life, or lasts for a longer period.
Erikson's 8 stages of development
According to Erikson, there are eight stages of development: trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority, identity vs. role confusion, intimacy vs. isolation, generativity vs. stagnation, and integrity vs. despair.
As posited by Erikson, these occur throughout a person's lifetime and contribute to the ongoing development of personality. He defined these as a the crisis of learning to trust our parents, learning to be autonomous from them, and learning from them how to act as an adult.
Stage model of development
Implies that people go through stages in a certain order, and that a specific issue characterizes each stage.
Erikson believed that each stage in personality development represent a conflict, or a developmental crisis, that needed to be resolved before the person advanced to the next stage of development.
A period when a person does not have a strong sense of who he or she really is in terms of values, careers, relationships and ideologies.
Rite of passage
Identities founded on undesirable social roles, such as "gangstas", girlfriends of street toughs, or members of street gangs.
A person does not emerge from a crisis with a firm sense of commitment to values, relationships, or career but forms an identity without exploring alternatives. an example would be young people who accept the values of their parents or culture or religious beliefs without question.
The time taken to explore options before making a commitment to identity. College can be considered a "time out" from life, in which a student may explore various roles, relationships, and responsibilities before having to commit on any single life path.
Horney, in reinterpreting Freud's concept of penis envy, taught that the penis was a symbol for this rather than some organ that women actually desired. Horney wrote that girls realize, at an early age, that they are being denied this because of their gender. She argued that girls did not really have a secret desire to become boys.
A set of shared standards for many behaviors. It might contain different standards for males and females, such as that girls should be ashamed if they engage in promiscuous sex, whereas boys might be proud of such behavior, with it being culturally acceptable for them to even brag about this behavior.
Fear of success
Horney coined this phrase to highlight a gender difference in response to competition and and achievement situations. Many women, she argued, fell that if they succeed they will lose their friends. Consequently many women, she thought, harbor an unconscious fear of this. She held that men, on the other hand, feel that they will actually gain friends by being successful and hence are not at all afraid to strive and pursue achievement.
Traits or roles typically associated with being male in a particular culture.
Traits or roles typically associated with being female in a particular culture.
Horney stressed the point that, while biology determines sex, cultural norms determine what is acceptable for typical males and females in culture.
The common tendency for people to take credit for success yet to deny responsibility for failure.
A style of inflated self admiration and the constant attempt to draw attention to the self and to keep others focused on oneself.
The fact that, although narcissistic people appear to have high self-esteem, they actually have doubts about their self worth.
Object relations theory
Places an emphasis on early childhood relationships. While this theory has several versions that differ from each other in emphasis, all the versions have at their core a set of basic assumptions: that the internal wishes, desires, and urges of the child are not as important as his or her developing relationships with significant external others, particularly parents.
IN object relations theory, a child will create an unconscious mental representation of his or her mother. This allows the child to have a relationship with this object even in the absence of a real mother.
Begins in the human infant when he or she develops a preference for people over objects. Then the preference seems to narrow to a specific person, so that the child prefers to see people he or she has seen before compared to strangers. Then it narrows further to the mother or primary caretaker.
Children experiencing this react negatively to separation from their mother or primary caretaker becoming agitated and distressed when their mothers leave. Most primates exhibit this.
Strange situation procedure
Developed by Ainsworth and her colleagues for studying separation anxiety and for identifying differences between children in how they react to separation from their mothers.
When infants in the strange situation stoically endured the separation and went about exploring the room, waiting patiently, or even approaching the stranger, and sometimes wanting to be held by the stranger. They seemed confident the mother would return.
These infants in the strange situation avoided the mother when she returned. Infants in this group typically seemed unfazed when the mother left, and typically did not give her much attention when she returned.
Ambivalent ly attached
These infants were very anxious in the strange situation when the mother left. They often started crying and protesting vigorously before the mother even gets out of the room. While the mother is gone the infants are difficult to calm down. Upon her return however these infants behave ambivalently. They show both anger and desire to be close to their mother.
Early experiences and reactions of the infant to the parents, particularly the mother, become Bowlby calls these for later adult relationships. These are internalized in the form of unconscious expectations about relationships.
Secure relationship style
The adult has few problems developing satisfying relationships. Secure people trust others and develops bonds with others. Hazan and Shaver.
Avoidant relationship style
In this situation the adult has a hard time trusting others. They remain supicious of the motives of others, and they are afraid of making commitments. They are afraid of depending on others because tey anticipate being disappointed, let down, abandoned, or separated.
Ambivalent relationship style
Adults are vulnerable and uncertain about relationships. They become overly dependent and demanding on their partners and friends. They display high levels of neediness in their relationships. They are high maintenance partners in a sense that they need constant reassurance and attention.
Internal states that arouse and direct behavior toward specific objects and goals.
hierarchy of needs
Murray believed that each person has a unique combination of needs. An individuals various needs can be thought of as existing at a different level of strength.
The interaction of forces within a person.
Need-relevant aspects of the environment.
Murray's notion that there is a real environment. Two people may not see the same thing while walking down the street. This is the objective.
Murray's notion that there is a perceived environment. This is the subjective.
The notion that a person's needs influence how he or she perceives the environment, especially when the environment is ambiguous. The act of interpreting the environment and perceiving the meaning of what is going on in a situation.
thematic apperception test
Developed by Murray and Morgan, this is a projective assessment technique that consists of a set of black and white ambiguous pictures. The person is shown the pictures and is told to write a short story interpreting what is happening in each picture.
A concept that can be applied to motives and emotion, these levels refer to a person's momentary amount of a specific need or emotion, which can fluctuate with specific circumstances.
A concept that can be applied to motives and emotions, these levels refer to a person's average tendency, or his or her set-point, on the specific motive or emotion. The idea is that people differ from each other in their typical or average amount of specific motives or emotions.
Designed to assess motives, it uses 14 pictures representing achievement, power, or intimacy and a series of questions about important motivational states to elicit answers from test subjects.
Motives as they are measured in fantasy-based techniques, as opposed to direct self-report measure.
McClelland argued that this is primarily a person's self awareness of his or her own conscious motives.
need for achievement
According to McClelland, the desire to do better, to be successful, and to feel competent. People who are high in this obtain satisfaction from accomplishing a task or from the anticipation of accomplishing a task.
McClelland believes that certain parental behaviors can promote high achievement motivation, autonomy, and independence in their children.
need for power
A preference for having an impact on other people. People with this are interested in controlling situations and other people.
Life experiences that provide opportunities to learn to behave responsibly, such as having younger siblings to take care of while growing up.
According to McClelland, when people do not get their way, or when their power is challenged or blocked, they are likely to show strong stress responses.
need for intimacy
McAdams defines this as the recurrent preference or readiness for warm, close, and communicative interaction with others.
Emphasis the role of choice in human life, and the influence of responsibility on creating a meaningful and satisfying life.
The base of Maslow's need hierarchy. These include those needs that are of prime importance to the immediate survival of the individual as well as to the long term survival of the species.
The second to lowest level of Maslow's need hierarchy. These needs have to do with shelter and security, such as having a place to live and being free from the threat of danger.
The third level of Maslow's motivation hierarchy. Humans are very social species, and most people possess a strong need to belong to groups and to be accepted by others.
The fourth level of Maslow's motivation hierarchyy. There are two types of esteem: esteem from others and self-esteem, the latter often depending on the former. People want to be seen by others as competent, as strong and able to achieve.
Maslow defines this as becoming more and more what one idiosyncratically is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming.
A subjective state that people report when they are completely involved in an activity to the point of forgetting time, fatigue and everything else but the activity itself.
fully functioning person
According to Rogers, this is a person on his or her way toward self-actualization.
According to Rogers, all children are born wanting to be loved and accepted by their parents and others, this is this desire.
conditions of worth
According to rogers, the requirements set forth by parents or significant others for earning their positive regard.
conditional positive regard
According to Rogers, people behave in specific ways to earn the love and respect and positive regard of parents and significant others.
unconditional positive regard
The receipt of affection, love, or respect without having done anything to earn it.
positive self regard
According to Rogers, people who have received positive regard from others develop this. They accept themselves, even their own weaknesses and shortcomings.
A defense mechanism in Roger's theory of personality. It refers to modifying the meaning of experiences to make them less threatening to the self-image.
An adaptive form of intelligence consisting of the ability to know one's own emotions, to regulate those emotions, motivate oneself, know how others are feeling, and influence how others are feeling.
client centered therapy
Clients are never given interpretations of their problem. Nor are clients given any direction about what course of action to take to solve their problem. The therapist makes no attempts to change the client directly, instead the therapist tries to create an atmosphere in which the client may change themselves.
Understanding the person from his or her point of view.
Psychologists working in this approach focus on the components of cognition, such as how people perceive, interpret, remember, and plan, in their efforts to understand how and why people are different from each other.
Processing information by relating it to a similar even in your own life. This style of processing information occurs when people interpret a new event in a personally relevant manner. For example, they might see a car accident and start thinking about the time they were in a car accident.
A general term referring to awareness and thinking as well as to specific mental acts such as perceiving, interpreting, remembering, believing, and anticipation.
The transformation of sensory input into mental representations and the manipulation of such representations.
One of the three levels of cognition that are of interest to personality psychologists. This is the process of imposing order on the info our sense organs take in.
A person's awareness of what he or she desires and believes is valuable and worth pursuing.
rod and frame test (RFT)
An apparatus to research the cues that people use in judging orientation in space. The participant sits in a darkened room and is instructed to watch a glowing rod surrounded by a glowing square frame. This test measures the personality dimension of field dependence- independence.
The degree to which people can tolerate pain, which shows wide differences between persons.
Petrie's theory refers to the dimension along which people differ in their reaction to sensory stimulation; some appear to reduce sensory stimulation, some appear to augment stimulation.
A concept or provable hypothesis that summarizes a set of observations and conveys the meaning of those observations.
A belief or concept that summarizes a set of observations or version of reality, unique to an individual, which that person routinely uses to interpret and predict events.
In personality psychology, the notion that reality is a construct, that every person and culture has its own unique version of reality and that no single version of reality is more valid or more privileged than another.
locus of control
A person's perception of responsibility for the events in his or her life. It refers to whether people tend to locate that responsibility internally, within themselves, or externally, in fate, luck or chance.
A person's expectations for reinforcement that hold across a variety of situations. When people encounter a new situation, they base their expectancies about what will happen on their generalized expectancies about whether they have the abilities to influence events.
External locus of control
Generalized expectancies that events are outside of one's control.
internal locus of control
The generalized expectancy that reinforcing events are under one's control, and that one is responsible for the major outcomes in life.
Recent researcher have developed specific locus of control of events. In this approach the emphasis is on locus of control in discrete areas of life, such as health locus of control.
Animals (including humans), when subjected to unpleasant and inescapable circumstances, often become passive and accepting of their situation.
A person's explanation of the cause of some event.
Whenever someone offers a cause for some event, that cause can be analyzed in terms of the three categories of attributions: internal-external, stable-unstable, and global-specific. The tendency a person has to employ certain combinations of attributions in explaining events.
pessimistic explanatory style
Puts a person at risk for feelings of helplessness and poor adjustment, and emphasizes internal, stable, and global causes for bad events. It is the explanatory style.
optimistic explanatory style
A style that emphasis external, temporary, and specific causes of events.
A set of relevant actions intended to achieve a goal that a person has selected.
cognitive social learning approach
A number of modern personality theories have expanded on the notion that personality is expressed in goals and in how people thing about themselves relative to their goals. Collectively these theories from an approach that emphasizes the cognitive and social processes whereby people learn to value and strive for certain goals are others.
A concept related to optimism and developed by Bandura. The belief that one can behave in ways necessary to achieve some desired outcome.
By seeing another person engage in a particular behavior with positive results, the observer is more likely to imitate that behavior. It is a form of learning whereby the consequences for a particular behavior are observed, and thus the new behavior is learned.
One focus of self-regulation whereby the person is concerned with advancement, growth, and accomplishments. Behaviors with this are characterized by eagerness, approach, and going for the gold.
One focus of self-regulation where the person is concerned with protection, safety, and the prevention of negative outcomes and failures. Behaviors with a prevention focus are characterized by vigilance, caution, and attempts to prevent negative outcomes.
Achievement view of intelligence
This is associated with educational attainments-how much knowledge a person has acquired relative to others in his or her age cohort.
aptitude view of intelligence
Seeing intelligence less as the product of education and more as an ability to become educated, as the ability to learn.
The broad view of intelligence.
Including several forms of intelligence.
cultural context of intelligence
Looks at how the definition of intelligent behavior varies across different cultures. Because of these considerations, intelligence can be viewed as referring to those skills valued in a particular culture.
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