English Study Guide
Terms in this set (41)
AKA Artistic Appeals: those based on reason and common sense. probably not going to have facts
AKA Inartistic Appeals: those based on hard evidence like facts, clues, statistic, testimonies,
witnesses (hard evidence)
starting an argument with a reference to something general and from this it draws conclusion about something more specific.
the power of the mind to think, understand, and form judgments by a process of logic.
an assertion of the truth of something, typically one that is disputed or in doubt.
how do i get from the data to the claim?
a word or phrase that is not formal or literary, typically one used in ordinary or familiar conversation. "Casual, local language"
"opposite" - Sarcasm is implied often
-saying one thing and meaning the other.
-also how events go in one direction and change at the end. looks like its going one way, but totally changes.
-dramatic irony is when the audience knows something that a character doesn't know
the general attitude of speaker or piece
an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference. assuming that the audience knows the reference.
well meaning and kindly. nice.
compare and contrast
To contrast something is to look for differences among two or more elements, but compare is to do the opposite, to look for similarities.
cause and effect
something happened and what happens as a result
about a call to action, not just simply changing a mindset
Claim: the position or claim being argued for; the conclusion of the argument.
Grounds: reasons or supporting evidence that bolster the claim.
Warrant: the principle, provision or chain of reasoning that connects the grounds/reason to the claim.
Backing: support, justification, reasons to back up the warrant.
Rebuttal/Reservation: exceptions to the claim; description and rebuttal of counter-examples and counter-arguments.
Qualification: specification of limits to claim, warrant and backing. The degree of conditionality asserted.
Approaching the audience in a nonthreatening way
1. Introduction and Anti Thesis Acknowledgement
2. Contexts of other arguments
3. Context Writer's Argument
4.Benefits to Argument
3. Lines of argument
4. Alternative argument
a spoken or written account of connected events; a story.
a spoken or written representation or account of a person, object, or event.
AKA forensic argument.
seek to know what happened or what effect a person or event has had on the past and the here and now.
AKA Ceremonial arguments.
Based on contemporary values, beliefs, that are debated within a society
AKA deliberative argument.
Debate what will/should happen in the future.
What is the writer's problem? What is bothering them?
Why are they speaking?
audience (intended and invoked)
Who are they speaking to?
right words at the right time
arguments of fact
..answer questions of existence, definition, or quality
arguments of definition
..to establish that the focus of discussion fits into a broader category
arguments of quality
A qualifier that has to do with someone's quality of life
arguments of policy
...they often build on arguments of fact to answer the question, "What should be done?"
arguments to convince
to present information about a particular issue that will merit a reader's attention and convince them to consider the point
arguments to persuade
to present information to move the reader to action
arguments to inform
to tell an audience something they do not know
arguments to explore
often deeply personal arguments
arguments to make decisions
closely allied to arguments to explore
arguments to meditate or pray
the speaker/writer hopes to transform himself or others
the way that words are used to convey an argument
how you define a word or topic