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Mexican War - APUSH
Terms in this set (48)
A failed attempt to force broader democracy in the state of Rhode Island. It was led by Thomas Wilson Dorr, who mobilized the disenfranchised to demand changes to the state's electoral rules. The effect in the 1830s was that the rapidly growing industrial cities were far outnumbered in the legislature.
American literary, political, and philosophical movement of the early 19th century, centered around Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. Transcendentalists operated with the sense that a new era was at hand. They believed in the importance and the efficacy of human striving, and they emphasized the unity rather than the "Trinity" of God
Hudson River School of Art
A mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. Reflected discovery, exploration, and settlement. Landscapes were characterized but heir realistic, detailed, and sometimes idealized portrayal of nature. Thomas Cole is generally acknowledged as the founder
An American leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and a settler of the Western United States. He founded Salt Lake City and served as the first governor of the Utah territory. Took the place of Joseph Smith when he was assassinated.
The rise of organizations that sponsored public programs and entertainments. Publication flourished in the mid-19th century, particularly in the NE and the Midwest. Some lasted until the early 20th century. They were important in the development of adult education in America. During this period, hundreds of informal associations were established for the purpose of improving the social, intellectual, and moral fabric of society. The first American lyceum was founded by Josiah Holbrook.
An American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums. During the Civil War, she served as Superintendent of Army Nurses.
Rise of Labor Unions
The abundance of laborers available for these unskilled factory jobs made individual workers expendable and led to decreased wages. Class division between the corporate giants and the laborers became increasingly apparent throughout America. Health and safety conditions in the workplace were poor and works had limited recourse. The process of industrialization transformed the nation's economy and social structure, but in doing so it provoked the emergence of an organized labor movement.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842: the Massachusetts Supreme Court held that it was not illegal for workers to organize a union or try to compel recognition of that union with a strike. Prior to the case, the legality of labor combinations in America was uncertain.
Increased during the 1800s - NE U.S. - Irish, German. Allowed industrialization to flourish.
An American engineer and inventor who is credited with the development of the commercially successful steamboat, the CLERMONT.
Prigg v. Pennsylvania
1842: the United States Supreme Court case in which the court held that the Federal Fugitive Slave Act precluded a Pennsylvania state law the prohibited blacks from being taken out of Pennsylvania into slavery, and overturned the conviction of Edward Prigg as a result. Background: a black woman names Margaret Morgan moved to PA from MD where she had once been a slave. She had never been formally emancipated.
Compromise of 1850
A package go 5 separate bills passed by the United States Congress in September 1850, which defused a 4-year political confrontation between slave and free states regarding the status of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War.
Final Compromise: CA was admitted as a free state. UT and NM Territory status to be decided by popular vote. TX boundaries changed. Slave trade was abolished in Washington D.C. the Fugitive Slave Act was strengthened.
Part of the Missouri Compromise: No slavery (except in Missouri) would be allowed in the Louisiana Territory north of the 36-30 latitude line.
(1858) A series of formal political debates between the challenger, Lincoln, and the incumbent, Douglas, in a campaign for the one of IL's two United States Senate seats.
Cotton Gin and Reaper
Cotton Gin: a device fro removing the seeds from cotton fiber. Invented by Eli Whitney in 1794 and allowed for greater productivity than manual cotton separation.
Reaper: Invented by Cyrus McCormick. Although the McCormick reaper was a revolutionary innovation for the harvesting of crops, it did not experience mainstream success and acceptance until at least 20 years after it was patented by Cyrus McCormick.
Irish Potato Famine
During the Irish Potato Famine in 1845, the Irish potato crop became infested with disease leading to a complete economic crash in Ireland as well as food necessity crash leading to lots of migration out of Ireland.
-1845 potato crop destroyed by disease in Ireland
-Irish wheat and oats all exported to Great Britain
-over 1 million died of starvation or disease
-millions migrated to the US
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison was elected the 9th president in 1841 and expected to go along with Webster and Clay's ideas but when he died and Tyler took over, Tyler really leaned to territorial expansion
-9th president in 1841
-1st president to die in office, VP Tyler took over
-led the US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe
-a Whig party member seen to go along with Webster and Clay's ideas
John C. Fremont "Pathfinder"
John C. Fremont led frontiersmen and himself to map out the W. in the 1840s and helped CA begin to declare independence.
-led frontiersmen to Sacramento Valley encouraging the CA Americans to declare independence like TX
-named CA the Bear State Republic
-a mountain man dedicated to mapping routes
-helped in the Mexican American War
Mountain men in the 1800s explored past the Mississippi River and trapped furs to make a living.
-relied on the land to survive
-had rendezvous system: mid 1820's where mountain men and NA in Rocky Mtns. gathered annually to trade pelts and hides
-furs were extremely profuse in early 19th C. but as time went on, they kept decreasing yet increasing in price
Franciscan Mission The Franciscan missions were originally to keep Russia out and in turn allowed to convert many especially on the coast
-originally Spain was worried that Russia would come too close
-Sp. anchored in San Francisco Bay constructing presidos
-used to convert the Native Americans especially on the coast
- Franciscan friears led by Junipero Serra ~8o who created the missions
The overland trails were to CA and OR which are extremely dangerous because -trails to Ca and trails to OR have Native Americans and theifs who just want to steal what you have.
-extremely dangerous which leads to deaths every 8 yds.
-a family adventure that would take months to complete
-used the trails to get to the opportunity and desire you like.
Battle of the Alamo
In 1836, the Americans were inside the Alamo hiding out and the Mexicans were trying to get in and on their third try they finally broke the wall and defeated the Americans
-first large defeat against US
-Mexicans so behind because it took so long to break the walls down
-Allowed Texans to assume position
-Texans revolt against Mexicans to become the Lone Star State
James Knox Polk "Young Hickory"
Polk was a Democratic president elected in 1844 for his expansionist policies.
-major intensions: reduce import tariffs, re establish Van Buren's Independent Treasury, resolve Oregon boundary dispute with Br., and aquire CA from MX
-originally not going to be includded in the presidential race but then bc Democrat Van Buren was not expansionist, the Democratic party elected Polk instead
-Polk won by a slim plurality
-opposition to national bank and pleged only one term
Winfield Scott was a very successful war hero in the Mexican American war who helped the US win tremendously, defeating Santa Anna to conclude the war.
-US general-hero in War of 1812
-defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War
-1838 removed Cherokee from their homes
-assaulted Mexico City by Veracruz and won allowing for more land to be given to the US
Seneca Falls/ Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Elizabeth Stanton organized the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 which called for more women's rights.
-Elizabeth Stanton worked with Lucretia Mott
-the Seneca Falls Convention discussed social, civil, and religious women's rights
-created the Declaration of Sentiments
-began the women's rights movement
Texas War for Independence
In 1836, losing at the Battle of the Alamo, Texans declared their independence from Mexico after Sam Houston's victory against Santa Anna.
-TX volunteers defended the Alamo in 1836 but Santa Anna's numerous forces eventually broke down the walls
-Sam Houston was the TX commander in chief and led a group to defeat the Mexican army
-Houston got a treaty signed to recognize TX independence including the Rio Grand S. boundary
-1836: the Lone Star State drafted a constitution with Sam Houston as president
-legal slavery and free blacks banned
General Zachary Taylor
General Zachary Taylor commanded the US army to help take TX for US, not Mexico.
-commander of the Army of Occupation on the Texas border
-went between the Rio Grande and Neuces Rivers and built a fort
-Mexican army tried to capture this fort, beginning the war
-defeat of Santa Anna and won the Battle of Buena Vista, the last major Mexican attempt (1847) only to be followed up by the Battle of Veracruz (General Windfield Scott) where the US won
In the Mexican War between the United States and Mexico, the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.
-Texans had created their Lone Star State but now the US wanted it for slavery and expansion
-US won with general Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott
-US won TX and CA to be bought through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
In Feb. 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican war and allowed for the Mexican Cession.
-Mexican Cession: CA, NM, and TX land purchased by the US for $15 million
-Santa Anna left Mexico
-Mexico gave up claims to TX above the Rio Grande
-Polk signed the treaty
In 1853, the US bought a strip of land of S. Arizona and NM.
-completed transcontinental US
-allowed for flat land to build a railroad on
-the land is in current day US also
Tejanos were people claiming Texas as their home: not the US or Mexico.
-the Tejanos fought for the Alamo
-wanted the Lone Star Republic
-supported slavery and no free blacks
-composed of many farmers with slaves
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Santa Anna was Mexico's military dictator who wanted to rule Mexico but was defeated by the US army.
-despised slavery and dissolved the national congress to create a military dictatorship
-won at the Battle of the Alamo in 1836
-Sam Houston defeated the Mexicans, then Santa Anna was deposed
-left Mexico after his loss
Sam Houston led a group of Tejanos to defeat the Mexican army at the battle of San Jacinto in 1836, creating the Lone Star Republic.
-previously a TN frontiersman and governor that became TX commander in chief (1832)
-after his win got a treaty signed recognizing TX independence and Rio Grande border
-got Santa Anna deposed
-1st Texan president
Lone Star Republic
The Lone Star Republic was the nickname for TX after it won its independence from Mexico in 1836.
-President: Sam Houston
-composed of Tejanos who loved slavery and farming
-slavery was leagal and free blacks banned
-President Tyler of the US proposed annexing the Lone Star Republic and TX was all for it
Bear Flag Republic
The Bear Flag Republic was CA's nickname after it declared independence from Mexico.
-prior to its independence, tried to rebel 10 times from Mexico
-1845: John C. Fremont led frontiersmen to Sacramento Valley encouraging the people to declare independence like the Tejanos
-June 14th, 1845: captured Sonoma and proclaimed Bear Flag Republic
-CA welcomed its annexation for stability
Oregon fever was the enthusiasm for emigration to the Oregon Country in the late 1830s & early 1840s.
-through industrialization and wearing of the crops in the US many wanted to move west
-the West including Oregon taunted freedom and opportunity in free land
-many families traveled to make the West their new home
-trail conditions were very harsh but people were willing to tough it out
Manifest Destiny was Polk's term to say that the US was meant and supposed to travel west.
-Used to justify Oregon territory
-later used to justify TX, NM, CA, AZ annexation
-1800s belief that Americans had the right to spread across the continent
-phrase coined in 1844
Treaty of Oregon
The Treaty of Oregon established the 49 degree boundary between the US and Britain in 1846.
-Democratic expansionists urged "54 40 or Fight" on Polk to try and get more land for the US
-Previously, Br. and US had joint occupancy of Oregon Territory
-Br. unwiling to risk war over a remote territory
-US accepted the line at 49 degrees because more concerned with the Mexican War and Br. trade relations
Webster Ashburton Treaty
The British government met with Webster to conclude joint naval patrols of Africa's coast for slave trade in the Webster Ashburton Treaty of 1842.
-prior, the British gov't had been roaming the African oceans and searching US ships for slaves
-the British-American boundary with Canada defined boundaries around ME and the Great Lakes
-Great Lakes could be used by both Br. and US
David Wilmot introduced an amendment saying any territory acquired from Mexico would be free but it failed tremendously.
-dispute over whether any Mexican territory that America won during the Mexican War should be free or slave territory
-passed the House twice, but failed in the Senate
-symbol of how intense dispute over slavery was in the U.S
-really split the US for slavery regions
Irish-American inventor that developed the mechanical reaper in the 1830s.
-reaper replaced scythes to cut crops for harvest, -much more efficient
-helped grow the US's agriculture
-used as much in the W. as the cotton gin was used in the S.
Fugitive Slave Law
The fugitive slave law stated that escaped slaves must be returned to their owners and enforced by the local police
-originated in 1793 Fugitive Slave Act but was very lax
-was re-installed in the Compromise of 1850 to eliminate the underground railroad
-tough to enforce because some "kidnappers" arose and began bringing free blacks into slavery
-further separated the N and S with opposing views on slavery
In 1854, General Perry opened up Japan to the rest of the world's trade, ending Japanese isolation.
-Japan was forced to open up to the world following the arrival of US Commodore Matthew Perry
-US wanted to find new markets following industrialization
-Japan offered new economic opportunities
-Treaty of Kanagawa opened Japan trade
The Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 created popular sovereignty allowing the states to choose if they were free or slave.
-reversed the MO Compromise
-both pro-slavery and antislavery people moved to Kansas in vast mobs to cast their votes
-led to guerrilla warfare- "Bleeding Kansas"
-the north disliked the Act and Southerners loved it.
Dred Scott Decision
In the Dred Scott decision of 1857, the Supreme Court stated black Americans were not constitutionally citizens, but property.
-a Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man
-decision written by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney
-reversed by the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868
-denied the citizenship of African Americans and the right of the federal government to control slavery in US territories
The Lecompton Constitution was a proslavery constitution in Kansas, supported by Buchanan, but denied by Kansas.
-issue for a constitution arose after the Kansas-Nebraska Act
-Kansas ended up a territory until 1861
-proposed protected rights of slaveholders
-fraudulent and rejected first by Congress and then by Kansas voters
Elias Howe invented the sewing machine in 1846
-this sewing machine later improved on by Singer
-helped revolutionize garment manufacture in the factory and home
-co-invented the zipper
-made sewing faster and more efficient
Stephen Austin was the original settler of TX, given land from Mexico.
-given land to help populate TX
-TX must have no slaves he was told, but he could sell the land for super cheap
-allowed for the increase in TX immigrants
-brought the first Americans into Mexico
-Austin, TX named after him
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