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What structures are part of the upper respiratory tract


which part of the respiratory system does not function as an air distributer


Which sequence is the correct pathway for air movement through the nose and into the pharynx

Anterior nares, vestibule, nasal cavity meati, posterior nares

What are the paranasal sinuses

Frontal maxillary and spheniod

The true vocal cords and the rima glottis are called the


Aspirated objects tend to lodge in the

Right bronchus

The fluid coating the alveoli that reduces surface tension is called


What are subdivisions of the thoracic cavity

left pleural division
right pleural division

Raising the ribs...

Decreases the depth and width of the thorax

Malignancy of pulmonary tissue

lung cancer

very serious chronic and highly infectious infection


Displacement of the nasal septum

deviated septum

a common infection of the lower respiratory tract characterized by acute inflammation of the bronchial tree

acute bronchitis



an inflammation of the mucosa of the nasal cavity


sore throat


harsh, vibrating cough


Function of nose

Warms and humidifies air

Function of Pharynx

air and food pass through
middle ear infection
sore throat

Function of larynx


"Gas exchanger"


Trachea, two primary bronchi and their branches

Bronchial tree

There are four pairs of these sinuses


Small branch of bronchus


Serous membrane in the thoracic cavity




voice box






The organs of the respiratory system function as

air distributers and gas exchangers

The respiratory system also..

filters warms and humidifies the air that we breathe

Respiratory organs include

nose lungs pharynx larynx trachea etc.

the respiratory system ends in millions of tiny thin walled sacks called


Boyle's law states that

the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure

When the diaphragm contracts, the volume of the thorax increases, thoracic pressure

decreases and air rushes into the lungs

quiet inspiration is the function of

the diaphragm and external intercostal

during normal quiet respiration, the amount of air exchanged between the lungs and atmosphere is called _____ and has a volume of ___ ml

residual volume, 1200 ml

functional residual capacity equals


Eupnea is a term used to describe

normal breathing

under normal conditions, air in the atmosphere exerts a pressure of

760 mmHg

Areas where gas exchange cannot take pace are

anatomical dead spaces

all of the following are regulated processes associated with the functioning respiratory system except

control of cell metabolism rate

daltons law is also known as

the law of partial pressure


The measurement of the motion of molecules

Residual Volume

The volume remaining in the respiratory system after maximum expiration


The temporary cessation of breathing

if oxygen is 21 % of the atmosphere, it will contribute ___ of the total atmospheric pressure

21 %

If alveolar PO equals 100 mm Hg and pulmonary capillary PO equals 40 mm Hg which of the following will occur

O2 will exit the alveoli and enter into capillary blood
Capillary O2 will exit the alveoli at 100 mm Hg
Po Will equalize between the pulmonary capillary and alveoli

PO at standard atmospheric pressure is approximately

160 mmHg

PCO of systemic arterial blood is approximately

40 mmHG


Air in the pleural space of the thoracic cavity

Partial pressure

Can be used interchangeably with tension


The gas of greatest concentration in atmospheric air

Oxygen is carried in blood

As oxyhemoglobin
dissolved in plasma
molecularly as HbO

increasing the carbon dioxide content of blood results in

increased blood Ph

Approximately 97% of oxygen transported as _______, whereas the remaining 3% is transported dissolved in _____

Plasma; hemoglobin

The exact amount of oxygen in blood depends mainly upon...

the amount of hemoglobin present

Bohr Effect

A right shift of the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve due to increased PCO

The basic rhythm of the respiratory cycle seems to be generated by

the medullary rhythmicity area

The diving reflex

Is responsible for the astonishing recovery of near drowning victims in cold water

Irritation of the phrenic nerve can cause

Extended periods of hiccups

A broad term used to describe conditions of progressive, irreversible obstruction of expiratory air flow

Chronic Obtrusive Pulmonary Disease

COPD results from

Excessive tracheobronchial sections that obstruct air flow

May results from the progression of chronic bronchitis or other conditions as air becomes entrapped within alveoli causing them to enlarge and eventually rupture


An obstructive disorder characterized by recurring spasms of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchial air passages


Labored breathing




Volume of air exhaled after inspiration

Tidal volume

Most carbon dioxide is carried in this form


Hemoglobin combined with oxygen



Partial pressure

Used to measure amount of air exchanged in breathing






the term that means the same thing as breathing


Carbaminohemoglobin is formed when ____ binds to hemoglobin

Carbon dioxide

Most of the oxygen transported by blood is

bound to hemoglobin

What occurs during inspiration

elevation of the ribs
contraction of the diaphragm
chest cavity becomes longer from top to bottom

A young adult male would have a vital capacity of about ___ ml


The amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after expiring the tidal volume is known as

expiratory reserve volume

Tidal volume

normal exhalation volume

inspiratory reserve volume

approximately 3300 ml


collapsed lung

physiological dead space

increased in emphysema

oxygen tension



quaternary protein

apneustic breathing

long, deep inspiration


sensitive to changes in arterial CO and pH

hering- breuer reflexes

helps control respirations


respiratory stimulant

Forced vital capacity

this measures the amount of air you can exhale with force after you inhale as deeply as possible

Forced expiratory volume

This measures the amount of air you can exhale with force in one breath

Forced expiratory flow 25% TO 75%

this measures the air flow halfway through an exhale

peak expiratory flow

this measures how quickly you can exhale. it is usually measured at the same time as your forced vital capacity

Maximum voluntary ventilation

this measures the greatest amount of air you can breathe in and out during one minute

Slow vital capacity

This measures the amount of air you can slowly exhale after you inhale as deeply as possible

Total lung capacity

this measures the amount of air in your lungs after you inhale as deeply as possible

functional residual volume

this measures the amount of air in your lungs at the end of a normal exhaled breathe

residual volume

this measures the amount of air in your lungs after you have exhaled completely. It can be done by breathing in helium or nitrogen gas and seeing how much is exhaled

Expiratory reserve volume

this measures the difference between the amount of air in your lungs after a normal exhale and the amount after you exhale with forced

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