51 terms

Biología: ADN: Replicación, Transcripción, & Traducción

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ADN se hereda de
2 padres; dicta la estructura del cuerpo, estatura, ojos y cabello de color y la forma de los dedos del pie
Eukaryota
organismo con un núcleo y orgánulos unida a la membrana
ADN contiene
toda la información genética necesaria para crecer y mantener un organismo vivo
Los eucariotas tienen
ADN en núcleo de cada célula
Doble hélice
El ADN es una
cuatro tipos de bases nitrogenadas
adenina (A), citosina (C), timina (T), guanina (G)
estructura del ácido nucleico, incluyendo las cuatro bases nitrogenadas, azúcar y fosfato
es idéntico en el ADN de todos los organismos vivos
2 cadenas de nucleótidos individuales se unen por
enlaces de hidrógeno entre bases de nucleótidos respectivas
Moléculas de ADN se pueden describir
como una escalera retorcida
azúcares, además de grupos fosfato forman el
vertical beams /sides of ladder
nucleótidos constituyen
los peldaños horizontales
la forma de ADN se llama
doble hélice
En el ADN adenina se une con
timina (thymine)
citosina se une con
guanina (guanine)
Debido a normas vinculantes, las 2 hebras de ADN son
complementario (si se conoce una hebra, el otro se puede deducir)
enlaces entre azúcar y fosfato grupos de molécula de ADN
son enlaces covalentes fuertes
bases de nitrógeno están unidos por
enlaces de hidrógeno débiles
Se produce la replicación del ADN
cada vez que una célula se divide
DNA se empaqueta en núcleo de la célula
como cromosomas
cuando una célula se divide
sus cromosomas se replican
genes se encuentran en
chromosomas
Genes are sections of
DNA that code for a specific protein
a gene is considered to be expressed when
a gene's code is used to produce a protein
two steps of gene expression are
transcription and translation
transcription is a process in which a
complementary strand of RNA is formed from the section of DNA that contains a gene
RNA is used as a copy or template to produce a
protein through the process called translation
a DNA strand contains genes and
regulatory elements that help control gene expression
certain sections of DNA mark where
a gene begins and ends & helps the process of transcription occur in the correct are of DNA
Cells typically produce a specific
protein only when it's needed
transcription uses DNA as the template for
making RNA
base pairing is
when hydrogen bonds form between the 2 strands of DNA
complementary base pair are
when adenine bonds only with thymine & cytosine bonds only with guanine
enzymes called helicases are responsible for
separating DNA strands
Transcription occurs inside the
nucleus
nucleotides in RNA are
adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil
uracil that is added to mRNA is the partner for
adenine
purpose of translation is to convert the information in mRNA into an
amino acid sequence, which will form a protein
translation takes place in the
cytoplasm, after mRNA has exited the nucleus
translation depends on "translating" 3-letter groups of nucleotides in the mRNA called
codons
codons correspond to
specific amino acids; 3 are "stop codons"
"stop codons" is the signal or "red light" for
the ribosome to stop adding amino acids
transcription
to make a copy
translation is carried out by
ribosomes
ribosomes are responsible for
reading the nitrogenous bases of the mRNA and forming polypeptide chain that forms primary structure of a protein
ribosomes are
miniature protein factories made of ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
ribosomes read the mRNA
one codon at a time
transfer
transfer RNA (tRNA) is responsible for bringing
amino acids to the ribosomes
tRNA molecules recognize specific codons and is the opposite of the codon; is called
anticodon
changes to DNA are called
mutations
mutations that affect cell grown cause
cancer, uncontrollable cell division in the body
a DNA mutation is not always
harmful
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