33 terms

CHAPTER 7

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Terms in this set (...)

What is memory?
The cognitive process by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved for later use
How does information get into memory?
Encoding
How is information maintained in memory?
Storage
How is information pulled back out of memory
Retrieval
What is a system of rules that convert information into another form or representation?
Code
What is the process of turning information into a format suitable for storage and later recall?
Code - or - Encoding
What is defined as Focusing awareness on a narrowed range of available stimuli?
Attention
What is Selective Attention?
the capacity for or process of reacting to certain stimuli selectively when several occur simultaneously.
What is Divided Attention?
Divided Attention is the ability to successfully execute more than one action at a time, while paying attention to two or more channels of information.
What does it mean to have Early Filtering?
During sensory input, before meaning processed (Able to block out other conversations)
What is Late Filtering?
After meaning processed (Cocktail party phenomenon)
What is Elaboration?
linking a stimulus to other information (Thinking of examples)
What is Self-referent encoding?
Making information personally meaningful
What is Visual imagery?
creation of visual images to represent words (Easier for concrete objects)
EX: Dual-coding theory
What are the three different Memory Stores?
long term, short term, and sensory memory
What is Long term memory?
Unlimited capacity store, can hold information over long periods of time
What is Short term memory?
Limited capacity store that holds info for a short time (~20 sec)
What is sensory memory?
Brief preservation of information in original sensory form
Visual - approx ¼ second - Sparkler afterimage Auditory - 4 to 5 seconds - "What? Oh, never mind"
What is Chunking?
grouping familiar stimuli for storage as a single unit
Which memory store is "Working memory"?
Short term memory
Explain Baddeley (1986)
4 components of working:
- Phonological rehearsal loop
- Visuospatial sketchpad
-Executive control system
- Episodic buffer
How is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory?
Schemas and Scripts
What are Schemas?
organized cluster of knowledge about object or event abstracted from previous experience
What are Scripts?
special type of schema Organizing Knowledge in Memory
What is Elizabeth Loftus & the eyewitness testimony?
A book.... Elizabeth Loftus makes the psychological case against the eyewitness. Beginning with the basics of eyewitness fallibility, such as poor viewing conditions, brief exposure, and stress, Loftus moves to more subtle factors, such as expectations, biases, and personal stereotypes, all of which can intervene to create erroneous reports. Loftus also shows that eyewitness memory is chronically inaccurate in surprising ways. An ingenious series of experiments reveals that memory can be radically altered by the way an eyewitness is questioned after the fact
What is Source monitoring?
type of memory error where a specific recollected experience is incorrectly determined to be the source of a memory
What is Reality monitoring?
the ability to distinguish between memories for events that have actually occurred and memories for imagined events
What is Destination Memory?
destination memory is an important component of episodic memory that plays a critical role in social interactions
What is Retention?
the proportion of material retained
Three Measures of Forgetting?
• Recall
• Recognition
• Relearning
Why do we forget?
Ineffective encoding
What is the decay theory?
memory fades due to the mere passage of time. Information is therefore less available for later retrieval as time passes and memory, as well as memory strength, wears away
What is Interference theory?
Interference occurs in learning when there is an interaction between the new material and transfer effects of past learned behavior, memories or thoughts that have a negative influence in comprehending the new material
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