66 terms

Therapy/Psych Disorders

medical model
the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital
Bio-Psycho-Social Model
assumption that disorders are influenced by genetic predispositions and physiological states and by inner psychological dynamics and by social and cultural circumstances between disorder and culture
Psychological disorder
must be: maladaptive, unjustifiable, disruptive, atypical
(neurotransmitters) too little serotonin and norepinephrine
Manic Episode
(neurotransmitters) too much norepinephrine
(neurotransmitters) too much dopamine
(neurotransmitters) too little acetylcholine
(neurotransmitters) too little dopamine
Dissociative Amnesia
When a person forgets a discrete amount of time
Dissociative Fugue
When someone forgets their past and their identity - often moving and taking on a new identity
Schizoid Personality Disorder
characterized by a detachment from social relationships and restricted affect/emotional range, appears indifferent to praise or criticism, shows emotional coldness
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
characterized by interpersonal deficits and cognitive/distorted thinking and odd/eccentric behavior, lack of close relationships
false perceptions
false beliefs
Negative symptoms
(schizophrenia) a lack of something that should be there
Positive symptoms
(schizophrenia) a presence of something that should not be there
Aversive Conditioning
substitutes a positive reaction with a negative reaction
Systematic desensitization
Substitutes a negative reaction with a positive one
Token Economy
rewards desired behaviors with a specific token that can be collected for various treats or rewards
(psychotherapy) hope, a new perspective, caring/empathic relationship
(psychotherapy) free association
(psychotherapy) active listening
Behavioral - operant conditioning
(psychotherapy) token economy
Behavioral - classical conditioning
(psychotherapy) systematic desensitization
(psychotherapy) genuineness, acceptance, empathy
(psychotherapy) dream interpretation
(psychotherapy) clarifying irrational thoughts
(psychotherapy) group discussion of family members
(psychotherapy) conversation between people with a common (sometimes embarrassing) problem
(psychotherapy) counterconditioning
(psychotherapy) reversing catastrophizing thoughts
(psychotherapy) changing client's negative thinking patterns
Eclectic therapist
one who uses techniques from various therapeutic perspectives
(biomedical therapies) decreasing dopamine activity
(biomedical therapies) depressing CNS activity
(biomedical therapies) increasing serotonin and/or norepinephrine levels
(biomedical therapies) shocking the brain with 100 volts of electricity, don't know why it works
(biomedical therapies) severs frontal lobes from other regions of the brain
(main drugs) Prozac
Anxiety Disorder
(main drugs) Valium
Psychotic Disorder/Schizophrenia
(main drugs) Clozaril
Anxiety Disorder
(main drugs) Xanax
Bipolar Disorder
(main drugs) Lithium
Psychotic Disorder/Schizophrenia
(main drugs) Thorazine
Anxiety Disorder
(main drugs) Paxil
Severe Depression
(main drugs) ECT
Extreme violent behavior
(main drugs) lobotomy (1940s/50s)
Dissociative Identity Disorder
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities
-Psychoanalytic - defense mechanism
-Learning/Behavioral - role-playing that has been rewarded/reinforced
Antisocial Personality Disorder
a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members; may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist, "psychopath", Lack of remorse, LYING
-Psychoanalytic - underdeveloped superego (inability to control the impulses of the ID) a trauma from childhood that has been repressed and not been addressed, etc.
-Learning/Behavioral - antisocial behavior has been reinforced or rewarded in some way
-Cognitive - faulty thinking patterns create a lack of remorse
a psychotic disorder characterized by two or more of the following: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms
-Psychoanalytic - repressed childhood trauma that has not been addressed/brought to consciousness
-Biological - genetic predisposition, dopamine overactivity
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
-Psychoanalytic - Unexpressed/repressed erotic or aggressive impulses
-Learning/Behavioral - Fear conditioning, stimulus generalization, observational learning
-Biological - evolutionary explanations, genetics
Specific Phobia
Anxiety disorder characterized by irrational and persistent fear of a particular object or situation, along with a compelling desire to avoid it.
-Psychoanalytic - unexpressed/repressed erotic or aggressive impulses
-Learning/Behavioral - fear conditioning, reinforcement, observational learning
-Biological - evolutionary explanations, genetics
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
-Psychoanalytic - unexpressed/repressed erotic or aggressive impulses
-Learning/Behavioral - reinforcement
-Biological - evolutionary explanations, genetics
-Cognitive - compulsions are evidence of distorted thinking patterns
Major Depressive Disorder
a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities
-Psychoanalytic - unexpressed/repressed erotic or aggressive impulses
-Learning/Behavioral - reinforcement
-Biological - genetics, low serotonin or norepinephrine levels
-Cognitive - self-defeating beliefs, learned helplessness
(true or false) all suicidal people could be diagnosed with depression
(true or false) suicide is among the top ten causes of death in the US
(true or false) there is a strong correlation between alcoholism and suicide
(true or false) suicide rates for non-whites are higher than for whites
(true or false) married people have a lower suicide rate that widowed or single people
Paranoid Personality Disorder
A pervasive distrust of others, suspects that others are exploiting, harming, deceiving him or her. Reluctant to confide in others out of fear that the info will be turned against them
Borderline Personality Disorder
a personality disorder characterized by lack of stability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion; impulsivity; angry outbursts; intense fear of abandonment; recurring suicidal gestures; often in and out of therapy
Histrionic Personality Disorder
a personality disorder characterized by excessive emotionality and preoccupation with being the center of attention; emotional shallowness; overly dramatic behavior; inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior; uses physical appearance to draw attention to self.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
characterized by a grandiose sense of self-importance, a preoccupation with fantasies of success or power, and a need for constant attention or admiration; lack of empathy, believes that he or she is "special" and unique, often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him/her; arrogant
Avoidant Personality Disorder
extreme social inhibition and introversion, hypersensitivity to criticism and rejection, limited social relationships due to fear of being rejected, and low self-esteem
Dependent Personality Disorder
a personality disorder characterized by helplessness; excessive need to be taken care of; submissive and clinging behavior; difficulty in making decisions, won't disagree with others, will volunteer to do unpleasant things to obtain support from others
Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder
personality disorder defined by a pervasive pattern of orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control. workaholics, intolerant of emotional behavior of other people. Inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values. Need to be perfect.