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medical model

the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital

Bio-Psycho-Social Model

assumption that disorders are influenced by genetic predispositions and physiological states and by inner psychological dynamics and by social and cultural circumstances between disorder and culture

Psychological disorder

must be: maladaptive, unjustifiable, disruptive, atypical


(neurotransmitters) too little serotonin and norepinephrine

Manic Episode

(neurotransmitters) too much norepinephrine


(neurotransmitters) too much dopamine


(neurotransmitters) too little acetylcholine


(neurotransmitters) too little dopamine

Dissociative Amnesia

When a person forgets a discrete amount of time

Dissociative Fugue

When someone forgets their past and their identity - often moving and taking on a new identity

Schizoid Personality Disorder

characterized by a detachment from social relationships and restricted affect/emotional range, appears indifferent to praise or criticism, shows emotional coldness

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

characterized by interpersonal deficits and cognitive/distorted thinking and odd/eccentric behavior, lack of close relationships


false perceptions


false beliefs

Negative symptoms

(schizophrenia) a lack of something that should be there

Positive symptoms

(schizophrenia) a presence of something that should not be there

Aversive Conditioning

substitutes a positive reaction with a negative reaction

Systematic desensitization

Substitutes a negative reaction with a positive one

Token Economy

rewards desired behaviors with a specific token that can be collected for various treats or rewards


(psychotherapy) hope, a new perspective, caring/empathic relationship


(psychotherapy) free association


(psychotherapy) active listening

Behavioral - operant conditioning

(psychotherapy) token economy

Behavioral - classical conditioning

(psychotherapy) systematic desensitization


(psychotherapy) genuineness, acceptance, empathy


(psychotherapy) dream interpretation


(psychotherapy) clarifying irrational thoughts


(psychotherapy) group discussion of family members


(psychotherapy) conversation between people with a common (sometimes embarrassing) problem


(psychotherapy) counterconditioning


(psychotherapy) reversing catastrophizing thoughts


(psychotherapy) changing client's negative thinking patterns

Eclectic therapist

one who uses techniques from various therapeutic perspectives


(biomedical therapies) decreasing dopamine activity


(biomedical therapies) depressing CNS activity


(biomedical therapies) increasing serotonin and/or norepinephrine levels


(biomedical therapies) shocking the brain with 100 volts of electricity, don't know why it works


(biomedical therapies) severs frontal lobes from other regions of the brain


(main drugs) Prozac

Anxiety Disorder

(main drugs) Valium

Psychotic Disorder/Schizophrenia

(main drugs) Clozaril

Anxiety Disorder

(main drugs) Xanax

Bipolar Disorder

(main drugs) Lithium

Psychotic Disorder/Schizophrenia

(main drugs) Thorazine

Anxiety Disorder

(main drugs) Paxil

Severe Depression

(main drugs) ECT

Extreme violent behavior

(main drugs) lobotomy (1940s/50s)

Dissociative Identity Disorder

a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities
-Psychoanalytic - defense mechanism
-Learning/Behavioral - role-playing that has been rewarded/reinforced

Antisocial Personality Disorder

a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members; may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist, "psychopath", Lack of remorse, LYING
-Psychoanalytic - underdeveloped superego (inability to control the impulses of the ID) a trauma from childhood that has been repressed and not been addressed, etc.
-Learning/Behavioral - antisocial behavior has been reinforced or rewarded in some way
-Cognitive - faulty thinking patterns create a lack of remorse


a psychotic disorder characterized by two or more of the following: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms
-Psychoanalytic - repressed childhood trauma that has not been addressed/brought to consciousness
-Biological - genetic predisposition, dopamine overactivity

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
-Psychoanalytic - Unexpressed/repressed erotic or aggressive impulses
-Learning/Behavioral - Fear conditioning, stimulus generalization, observational learning
-Biological - evolutionary explanations, genetics

Specific Phobia

Anxiety disorder characterized by irrational and persistent fear of a particular object or situation, along with a compelling desire to avoid it.
-Psychoanalytic - unexpressed/repressed erotic or aggressive impulses
-Learning/Behavioral - fear conditioning, reinforcement, observational learning
-Biological - evolutionary explanations, genetics


an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
-Psychoanalytic - unexpressed/repressed erotic or aggressive impulses
-Learning/Behavioral - reinforcement
-Biological - evolutionary explanations, genetics
-Cognitive - compulsions are evidence of distorted thinking patterns

Major Depressive Disorder

a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities
-Psychoanalytic - unexpressed/repressed erotic or aggressive impulses
-Learning/Behavioral - reinforcement
-Biological - genetics, low serotonin or norepinephrine levels
-Cognitive - self-defeating beliefs, learned helplessness


(true or false) all suicidal people could be diagnosed with depression


(true or false) suicide is among the top ten causes of death in the US


(true or false) there is a strong correlation between alcoholism and suicide


(true or false) suicide rates for non-whites are higher than for whites


(true or false) married people have a lower suicide rate that widowed or single people

Paranoid Personality Disorder

A pervasive distrust of others, suspects that others are exploiting, harming, deceiving him or her. Reluctant to confide in others out of fear that the info will be turned against them

Borderline Personality Disorder

a personality disorder characterized by lack of stability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion; impulsivity; angry outbursts; intense fear of abandonment; recurring suicidal gestures; often in and out of therapy

Histrionic Personality Disorder

a personality disorder characterized by excessive emotionality and preoccupation with being the center of attention; emotional shallowness; overly dramatic behavior; inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior; uses physical appearance to draw attention to self.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

characterized by a grandiose sense of self-importance, a preoccupation with fantasies of success or power, and a need for constant attention or admiration; lack of empathy, believes that he or she is "special" and unique, often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him/her; arrogant

Avoidant Personality Disorder

extreme social inhibition and introversion, hypersensitivity to criticism and rejection, limited social relationships due to fear of being rejected, and low self-esteem

Dependent Personality Disorder

a personality disorder characterized by helplessness; excessive need to be taken care of; submissive and clinging behavior; difficulty in making decisions, won't disagree with others, will volunteer to do unpleasant things to obtain support from others

Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

personality disorder defined by a pervasive pattern of orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control. workaholics, intolerant of emotional behavior of other people. Inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values. Need to be perfect.

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