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83 terms

Sociology Exam II

STUDY
PLAY
counter culture
cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a culture
cultural belief
ideas that a culture views as true
cultural relativism
practice of judging a culture by its own standards
culture lag
the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, disrupting a cultural system. trying to adapt to new technology
culture shock
the experience of feeling disoriented, uncertain, out of place or fearful when encountering an unfamiliar culture.
ethnocentrism
practice of judging another culture by the standards of your own culture
folkways
casual rules for everyday interaction, mild informal sanctions, justified by traditions. ex. dress in dark colors to funeral
language
a system of symbols that allow people to communicate with each other.
law
rules that are encoded by the law, official authority. opposite of folkways
mainstream culture
american culture
material culture or artifact
physical objects people use to describe their culture
mores
norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance
non material culture
nonphysical ideas that people have about their culture, including beliefs, values, rules, norms, morals, language, organizations, and institutions. ex. religion
norm
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members THREE TYPES:folkways, mores and laws .
sanction
penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm. can be positive and negative.
subculture
cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society's population
technology
special kind of knowledge about how to use the material resources of the environment in order to satisfy human needs, extension of human capacities. ex. feet---car
lenski
saw technology as a basis for understanding development of human societies which he called sociocultural evolution.
values
culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guideline for social living
verbal symbol
words, sentences, sounds, or other utterances that are said aloud in order to convey some meaning
achieved status
when an individual assumes a status through their personal efforts
ascribed status
born into the status
gender role
attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex
gender status
role of different genders
impression management
goal-directed conscious or unconscious process in which people attempt to influence the perceptions of other people about a person, object or event; they do so by regulating and controlling information in social interaction
in-group
a social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty
master status
a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a persons life.
modern society
post-traditional, post-medieval historical period, in particular, one marked by the move from feudalism (or agrarianism) toward capitalism, industrialisation, secularization, rationalization,
organization
formal: secondary group that comes together and formalizes relationships between members in order to achieve specific goals.
out-group
a social group in which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition
presentation of self
erving goffman's term for a persons' efforts to create a specific impression in the minds of others.
primary group
a small social group in which members share personal and lasting relationships
reference group
a social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions.
role conflict
when a person occupies two or more statuses which have roles that are contradictory or in conflict ex: work and school
role exit
rocess of disengagement from a role that is central to one's self-identity and establishment of a new role and identity
role set
a number of roles attached to a specific status
role strain
when behaviors attached to a specific status are contradictory or exceddingly heavy and impossible to met ex: good grades and social life
secondary group
a large group in which members pursue a specific goal; ex soc class
social construction of reality
the process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction
social institution
a major sphere if social life or societal subsystem organized to meet human needs
social interaction
process by which people act and react to interactions
social structure
any relatively stable pattern of social behavior
status
a social position that a person holds
status set
all the statuses a person holds at a specific time
adolescence
The period following the onset of puberty during which a young person develops from a child into an adult
adulthood
he period of time in your life after your physical growth has stopped and you are fully developed
anticipatory socialization
learning that helps a person achieve a desired position
childhood
state of being a child
concrete operational stage
PIAGET: 8-12 child can see casual connections in their surroundings and become interested in understanding why things happen
ego
Freud's term for a person's conscience efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society
egocentric
Thinking only of oneself, without regard for the feelings or desires of others; self-centered.
emphatic ability
ability to recognize emotions
formal operational stage
PIAGET: 12+ capable of abstract thinking
game
MEAD: child goes from simple role playing to relating to multiple role expectations simultaneously
generalized others
MEAD:the child gains understanding of its social position and that of others in the larger world
id
inborn drives:life force or need to bond and death force or aggressive drive FREUD
imitation or preparatory stage
with limited langauge, the child only engages in role imitation; no self yet- only mommy and daddy MEAD
internalization
internalization is the process of acceptance of a set of norms established by people or groups which are influential to the individual.
life course
internalization is the process of acceptance of a set of norms established by people or groups which are influential to the individual.
looking glass self
COOLEY'S term for self image based on how we thing others see us
mass media
the means for delivering impersonal communications to a vast audience
nature
accepted standards of basic morality or behavior
nurture
The act of bringing up.
old age
after retirement
peer group
a social group whose members have interests, social posistion and age in common, plays a major role in childhood and adolescence
play stage
MEAD: child can take the role of the other which brings about the perspective of significant others
preoperational stage
PIAGET: 2-7 children begin to use language and other symbols are are able to think about the world but only in concrete ways...cant understand things like death
re socialization
radically changing a inmate's personality by controlling the environment that they are in
sensormotor stage
infancy to 2; child experiances world though senses PIAGET
significant others
people, such as parents who have an important role in socialization
superego
internalization of society's norms; begin around age 5
taking the role of other
able to take the role of someone else
generalized other
the child gains understanding of its social position and that of others in the larger world
Pavolian Approach
dog experiments: dog salivates when hears dinner bell
Skinnerian Approach
pigeon experiments: operant conditions ex: gambling
watsonian approach
human behavior and personality are completely flexible and can be molded in any direction
Freud
puts forward a biologically based view of human development which emphasized the essential role of society in socialization
piaget
interest in child's cognative developement
Kohlberg
focus on development of child; how it judges right from wrong
preconventional- under 10
conventional- 10-16
post conventional- 16+
ONLY MALES
gilligan
studied males and females SAME AS KOHLBERG
Cooley
looking glass self
Mead
capacity of child to take the role of the other
goffman
examines how consciously create images of ourselves: impression management