REL1300 Week 14
Terms in this set (82)
In what famous text do we find the first line "The way that can be spoken of / Is not the constant way"?
Who, along with Confucius himself, are considered China's three foremost philosophers of the Confucian tradition?
Mengzi (Mencius) and Xunzi
In Confucian tradition, li refers not only to religious ritual but also ________ .
The rules of social etiquette and every day courtesy
What important ritual, whose roots are in a combination of native Japanese, Korean, and Chinese folk beliefs, has been an enduring responsibility for all of Japan's religious traditions?
Calming and controlling unsettled spirits
The warrior elite in Japanese tradition are known as the ________ .
In Japan, the butsudan is ________ .
What Japanese form of minimalist poetry reflects the Zen emphasis on penetrating to the essence of reality?
The word 'Zen' is the Japanese version of what Chinese word?
During what period was political or state Confucianism established in China?
The primary source of Confucius' sayings and teachings on how to govern in the period of Lesser Prosperity is known as the ________ .
The Japanese artistic practice of ikebana involves ________ .
How long is it believed to take an ancestor's spirit to fully leave the world in Japanese tradition?
What is the nenbutsu?
A phrase that is repeatedly chanted as the central practice of Pure Land Buddhism
Which of the following is NOT an example of common religious practice in Japan mentioned in the textbook?
Gathering weekly for communal worship and singing
What change in religious concepts and in understanding of the universe occurred between the Shang and Zhou dynasties in ancient China?
A shift in emphasis from the more personal 'Lord on High' to the impersonal concept of Heaven
What second-oldest book in Japan combines origin myths with accounts of the reigns of early emperors?
The Nihon Shoki.
'Filial piety', emphasized by Confucius, means ________ .
caring for one's parents
Next to the Daodejing, what is considered the main source of philosophical Daoism?
What tradition was associated with Japanese imperialism in Korea in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?
Which major new religious movement traces its roots ultimately to the teachings of Nichiren?
"Guiding and stretching exercises" similar to modern-day taiji (Tai Chi) are mentioned in early texts of what tradition?
The Daoist practice known as qigong involves ________ .
breath exercises that help the movement of vital energy through the body
The ancient Chinese manual of divination, based on 64 hexagrams, is called the ________
Classic of Changes
What does the Chinese term Dao mean?
The exemplary Confucian ('superior person') is known as a __________
In the Confucian tradition, xin is usually translated as __________
What popular bodhisattva is known in Japan for his ability to free tormented souls from hell, as well as protect children and travelers?
Jizo (or Ojizo-sama).
What two branches has Daoism historically been understood to have?
Philosophical and religious
The Daodejing (Classic of the Way and Power) is traditionally attributed to _______
Tariki, what Shinran argued me must rely on for salvation in the degenerate age, means ________ .
The bodhisattva known as Avalokiteshvara in India and Guanyin in China is called what in Japan?
Confucians criticized Buddhist monasticism because ________ .
Ascetic withdrawal from productive work was considered a shrinking of responsibility
What two Japanese monks brought back new forms of Buddhism from China in the ninth century, helping to domesticate and popularize it in Japan?
Saicho and Kukai
What Korean new religion combines Christian monotheism with East Asian (particularly Confucian) emphasis on balance and harmony with the universe?
WRONG The religion of great ancenstors (Daejongyo)
What first-century Confucian wrote Admonitions for Women about the proper cultivation of virtues for women?
What system of thought or religion inspired the creation of four distinct classes (samurai, farmers, artisans, and merchants) in Japanese society?
In what century was the first Buddhist temple in Japan constructed?
The eighth-century text containing the creation myths of Japan is called the ________ .
The Kokugaku movement beginning in the late 1600s emphasized ________ .
The rejection of Confucianism and Buddhism in favor of "true" Japanese spiritual traditions
Who developed Pure Land Buddhism, as we know it today, in Japan?
During what period was there a renewal of Confucianism, often referred to as neo-Confucianism?
Which of the following is NOT considered a mythical founder/hero in China or Korea?
Amitabha, the central buddha of the Pure Land tradition, is known in Japan as ________
When was the Japanese word for 'religion' first coined?
The late nineteenth century
According to recent census information in South Korea, of those who claimed institutional affiliation, which two religions claim nearly all membership in that country?
WRONG Daoism and Confucianism.
WRONG Buddhism and Confucianism.
What codified samurai ethics is known as the 'way of the warrior'?
When did "Shinto" begin to take form as a distinct and self-conscious entity?
The medieval period
What topic addressed in the Laozi (or Daodejing) is shunned in the Zhuangzi?
'Shinto' means ________ .
"way of the kami"
Which of the following aspects or practices of Buddhism was NOT a criticized by Confucians and Daoists in the Six Dynasties period?
Its veneration of texts.
During what period in Japan formerly syncretic Buddhist-Shinto institutions forcibly divided?
Which central Confucian term has been translated as 'humaneness', 'benevolence', 'compassion', or 'goodness'?
Which influential Japanese Buddhist monk believed that believed that the only path to salvation, for the individual and for the nation, lay in the teachings of the Lotus Sutra?
Who, during the Tan dynasty, wrote the Classic of Filiality for Women, and set out to create a female Confucian tradition?
The term kamikaze, in reference to the suicide attacks by Japanese pilots on American naval vessels in the Second World War, means ________ .
In what traditional Japanese festival are the spirits of the departed honored?
The kami in Japanese tradition are ________ .
individual spirits associated with specific natural phenomena, powers, and places
What best describes ancient Chinese attitudes and approaches to religious traditions?
What is the 'silver rule', found in Confucian tradition?
What you would not want for yourself, do not do to others."
What new religious movement in Japan was responsible for the deadly sarin gas attacks on the Tokyo subway system in 1995?
According to the Nihon Shoki ('Chronicles of Japan'), what religion did the Korean ruler recommend to the Japanese king in the sixth century?
The 'degenerate age', during which it was believed Buddhist dharma would decline and corruption and conflict would increase, was known in Japan as ________ .
Central to most religious practices in Japan is ________ .
WRONG chanting repeatedly the name of a deity or spirit
WRONG affirming the sincerity of deeply held beliefs
WRONG affirming one's commitment to a particular religious tradition over any other
WRONG affirming the sincerity of deeply held beliefs
The word de, in the Confucian tradition, came to mean ________ .
moral power rotted in ethical behavior
During what dynasty in China did the Five Classics originate?
Mengzi (Mencius) put emphasis on ________, the "flood-like vital force, energy or ether."
What are the sanjiao, or 'three teachings', of Chinese tradition?
Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism
The earliest Korean proto-state, associated with its national foundation myth, is called ________ .
Old Joseon (Choson)
Who are the primordial kami couple in Japanese mythology?
Izanagi and Izanami
What idea did the Mandate of Heaven establish?
That rulers are given the right to rule from Heaven through moral character and good governance
What religion was designated the official religion of the state after the Meiji Restoration?
The ideal found in both the Daodejing and the Zhuangzi is ________ .
Simplicity and harmony through the Way
What new idea did Buddhism introduce to China?
In what period in Korea was there significant backlash against Buddhism?
What are the mudang in Korean tradition?
Which kami of the sun became the primary deity associated with the Japanese imperial family?
Where are the Grand Shrines of Amaterasu located?
In Confucian tradition, the term li refers to ________ .
'rites' or 'ritual'
Around what time did Confucius live?
Sixth to fifth century BCE
Honji suijaku in Japanese tradition is the concept that ________ .
Kami are local manifestations of buddhas or bodhisattvas
During what dynasty was Buddhism introduced into China?
At the core of Soka Gakkai is the belief that ________.
personal transformation comes from chanting a sacred mantra