What were three things that had overtaken Europe in the 1300's?
Black Death, Starvation, warfare
Explain the significance of the Black Death, Starvation and warfare in the Renaissance?
decrease in population led farmers to produce more food than needed so food prices went down and people spent money on other things demand for agricultural goods increased. areas began to specialize
What did England and Germany specialize agriculturally in?
England- wool, Germany- Grain
As specialization increased what else increased?
Italy was divided into what in the north?
large city states
Italy was divided into what in the south?
Three examples of City-states
Venice, Milan, Florence
Give an example of what artisans practiced?
Venice's economy was based on?
What city is described as "a work of art"
Whose merchants were some of the wealthiest merchants in the world? Why?
Venice's because of trade
What prospered in Venice?
What was Milan's economy based on?
agriculture, silk, weapons
What was Florence's economy based on?
banking and cloth
Monarch appealed to Florentine bankers for money to fund what?
To fund wars and other endeavors
Merchants redefined what into what in Florence and sold it abroad.
raw wool into fine cloth
Who said, "what wealth of buildings, what distinguished architexture there is in Florence! Indeed, how the great genius of the builders is reflected in these buildings, and what a pleasure there is for those who live in them"?
Which family helped finance new buildings in Florence?
What does the Renaissance mean? In which language?
Rebirth in french
Causes of the Renaissance
increased trade with Asia and other regions as a result of the Crusades, Growth of large wealthy city states in Italy, Renewed interest in classical learning of ancient Greece and Rome, Rise of rich and Powerful merchants, Increased desire for scientific and technical k knowledge, desire to beautify cities
3 main reasons of the renaissance
increased trade, thriving cities, and wealthy merchant class
Who came to Venice on ships and Why?
Greek Scholars who were seeking refuge from the Ottomans
What did Greek Scholars bring with them?
ancient works that had thought to have been lost
What had the classical thinkers believed in?
human capacity to create and achieve
What caused people to think about the characteristics of a good education?
interest in Greek and Roman culture
Because of the new interest in Greek and Roman culture what changed in the education system?
The church's scholastic education began to give way to the classic subjects
What subjects make of the humanities
rhetoric, grammar, poetry, history, and Latin and Greek
What movement did the humanities inspire?
What did the Church's teachings say? What did humanists say?
Church said individuality and achievement were relatively unimportant; Humanists said individuality and accomplishment were important and that the potential of the human mind was almost limitlessportant
Who was Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
a humanist who wrote about the importance of the human mind
Who said, "On Man... the father conferred the seeds of... every way of life... If (a man is) rationale, he will grow into a heavenly being. If (a man is) intellectual, he will be an angel and the son of God"
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
The roots of humanism are sometimes traced back to what/who?
the works of Dante Alighieri
Who was Dante Alighieri
a Florentine poet in the middle ages
Name two important humanists
Giovanni Boccaccio and Francesco Petrarch
What did Boccaccio and Petrarch do?
they wrote literature in vernacular or everyday language of the people.
In the past, what had most writings been written in?
humanists rediscovered ancient texts on...
anatomy, geography, and astronomy
What was a notable advancement in medicine?
Leonardo da Vinci's study of human anatomy
Why did people turn to Petrarch?
Italy was insecure after war, Church was no longer stable, turned toward humanism and secular focus
What is secular humanism
that individual achievement and education could be fully expressed only if people used their talents and abilities to serve their cities
What is the ideal renaissance man?
"the universal man" accomplished in the classics, man of action, could respond to all situations
Who is Baldassare Castiglione
a humanist, italian diplomat, wrote the book "The Courtier"
Who dominated Italian society?
the church, nobles, artisans and merchants
What did renaissance artists use that Medieval artists did not use?
Merchants were usually either...
bankers or traders
What does the courtier describe
how to be the perfect Renaissance gentleman or gentlewoman
Which book describes a fictional conversation between the duke and his guests?
"The courtier" by Castiglione
how did the courtier suggest people should behave
Speak of serious and amusing subjects, know Latin and Greek, Be well-aquainted with poetry and history, be able to write prose and poetry
How did Merchants use Castiglione's book and why?
as a guide to behavior, they hoped if they acted like courtiers it would raise their status
Who was Niccolò Machiavelli?
author of "The Prince", a political philosopher and statesmen.
What influenced Machiavelli?
His experiences with violent politics of the time influenced his opinions about how governments should rule
Who wrote "The Prince" ?
Who described men as "ungrateful, fickle, liars, and deceivers"?
What advice is given by Machiavelli in "the Prince"?
Harsh treatments, advises rulers to separate morals from politics, power and ruthlessness are better than idealism, ruler must do whatever is necessary to stay in power
Who says, "A prudent ruler cannot, and must not, honor his word when it places him at a disadvantages and when the reasons for which he made his promise no longer exist."
What was Niccolò Machiaveli's theory?
The ends justify the means
Where did humanists find a wealth of scientific information?
archives and Arab translations for classical texts
The majority of humanist scholars and writers focused on what type of science?
Human sciences (history, geography, and politics)
Why was scientific exploration of the natural world important?
It challenged the Church's teachings about the world
Who was Nicholas Copernicus?
A polish astronomer, who suggested our solar system was a heliocentric model.
Who was Galileo Galilei?
An Italian astronomer, who wrote that Earth orbited the sun and was place under house arrest by church officials for expressing his views
RA or MA. Who used idealism and symbolism of religious themes
Who and what were patrons?
buyers of art; wealthy individuals, city governments or the church.
Who was the Medici family?
a wealthy family in Florence that ruled the city and supported the art; gave huge sums of money to artists, intellectuals, and musicians
Who was the family who were rulers in Milan?
the sforza family
What did Renaissance artist experiment with?
perspective and new ways of using color to portray shapes and textures
How did RA differ from MA subject wise?
RA painted religious subjects that focused on human personality of figures and significance and also Greek and Roman myths.
What did the shift of themes of art tell?
displayed the humanist interest in classical learning and human nature in the renaissance
How did the design of buildings during the renaissance reflect humanist reverence of Greek and Roman culture?
Churches, palaces, and public buildings incorporated columns and domes inspired by Greek and Roman architexture
Who was Leonardo da Vinci and was he considered a Renaissance man?
a painter, He was a renaissance man because he was also a writer, inventor, architect, engineer, mathematician, musician, and philosopher
Who painted "The Last Supper" and the "Mona Lisa"
Leonardo da Vinci
What was amazing about Da Vinci's notes?
He filled 20,000 pages with ideas for armored tank, flying machine, sketches of human anatomy
Who designed and built canals?
Leonardo da Vinci
Who developed a machine to cut threads in screws?
Leonardo da Vinci
Who designed the first machine gun?
Leonardo da Vinci
Who is Michaelangelo Buonarroti?
a Roman sculptor and Painter
What were two famous sculptures of Michaelangelo Buonarroti?
Pietà and David
What is Pietà?
a sculpture of Mary (mama of Jesus) holding her son after his death by Michaelangelo Buonarotti
What is "David"?
a 13 foot marble sculpture by Michelangelo Buonarotti
What is a famous painting of Michaelangelo Buonarroti?
The artwork on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
What does the artwork on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel depict?
scenes from the Old Testament of the Bible
Why is the painting on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel considered a great achievement in the history of painting?
Because of the personalized characterizations of biblical figures
Who was Raffaello Sanzio
a painter and architect, known as Raphael
Who created the School of Athens and what medium was it?
What is the name of Rafael's fresco and what does it depict?
"The School of Athens"; Plato and Aristotle surrounded by past and present philosophers
Who is admired for their paintings of the Madonna or mother of Jesus?