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MGMT Chapter 13
Terms in this set (58)
the use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement
the ability to influence the behavior of others and resist unwanted influence in return.
(doesn't mean that the person uses their power 100% of the time)
Power is acquired through organizational power and personal power
derive primarily from a person's position within the organization. Includes legitimate power, reward power, and coercive power.
derives from a position of authority within the organization (sometimes referred to as formal authority). The higher up they are the more power they have
exists when someone has control over the resources or rewards someone wants. Those with reward power have the ability to influence others if those being influenced believe that they will get rewards if they act a certain way
exists when a person has control over punishments for an organization. operates primarily on the principal of fear. not advised to be used regularly
are personal forms of power that capture "something else"
is derived from a persons expertise, knowledge, or skill on which others depend.
exists when others have a desire to identify and be associated with a person. Is generally derived from affection, admiration, or loyalty toward a specific individual.
It is possible for a person to possess all 5 forms of power. The personal forms of power are more strongly related to organizational commitment and job performance than are the organizational forms.
these are the four factors that have an effect on the strength of a person's ability to use power to influence others
the degree to which people have alternatives in accessing resources. Leaders with control over resources no one has access to have more power
the degree to which managers have the right to make decisions on their own. If managers have to follow company rules and procedures their power is reduced
represents how important a person's job is and how many people depend on that person to accomplish their tasks. Leaders who perform critical tasks and interact with others regularly have a greater ability to use their power to influence others.
how aware others are of a leader's power and position. If everyone knows that a leader has a a certain level of power, the ability to use that power to influence others will be high
is the use of an actual behavior that causes behavioral changes or attitudal changes in others. Influence is directional and moves downward most of the time. Influence is also relative (the absolute power of the two parties is not as important as the disparity between them)
the tactics used to cause changes in others, the most effective are rational persuasion, inspirational appeals, consultation, and collaboration. moderate effectives are ingratiation, personal appeals, exchange, and apprising. least effective are pressure and coalitions
the use of logical arguments and hard facts to show the target that the request is worthwhile. most effective when it helps show that the proposal is important and feasible. only tactic successful in upward influence
designed to appeal to the target's values and ideals, thereby creating an emotional or attitudinal reaction. to be used effectively leaders must have insight into what is important to the company. Used in the scent of a women
occurs when the target is allowed to to participate in deciding how to carry out or implement a request.
The tactic increases commitment from the target, who now has a stake in seeing that his or her opinions are valued
A leader uses collaboration to make it easier for the target to compete the request
use of favors, compliments, or friendly behaviors to make the target feel better about the influencer. better when used as a long term strategy.
occur when the requestor asks for something based on personal friendship or loyalty.
used when the requestor offers a reward or resource to the target in exchange for performing the request
used when the requestor clearly explains why performing the request will benefit the target personally. it differs from rational persuasion as it focuses solely on the benefit the target will receive
The use of coercive power through threats and demands. effective only in the short term
occur when the influencer enlists other people to help influence the the target. generally used in combination with other tactics
Summary of influence tactics
tend to be the most successful when used in combination with each other.
the softer methods are also more effective- rational persuasion, consultation, inspirational appeal, and collaboration.
Scent of a women-inspirational appeal.
Responses to influence tactics
occurs when the target of influence agrees with and becomes committed to the influence request (behaviors and attitudes)
occurs when the targets of the influence are willing to do what the leader asks, but they do so with a degree of ambivalence (Behaviors not attitudes, do it but not excited about it)
occurs when the target refuses to perform the influence request and and puts forth an effort to avoid having to do it
can be seen as actions by individuals that are directed toward the goal of furthering their own self interests
is the ability to effectively understand others at work and use that knowledge to influence others in ways that that enhance personal and/or organizational objectives
is an adeptness at identifying and developing diverse contacts
the tendency to observe others and accurately interpret their behavior
involves having an unassuming and convincing personal style that's flexible enough to adapt to different situations
involves appearing to others to have high levels of honesty and genuineness
there are five different styles a leader can use when handling conflict, each of which is appropriate in different circumstances
the 5 styles can be viewed as combinations of two different factors: how assertive leaders want to be in pursuing their own goals and how cooperative they are with regard to the concerns of others (always avoid relationship conflict)
occurs when one party attempts to get his or her own goals met without concern for the other party's results
high assertiveness low cooperation
occurs when one party wants to remain neutral, stay away from conflict, or postpone the conflict to gather information and let things cool down
Low assertiveness and low cooperation
occurs when one party gives in to the other and acts in a completely unselfish way
low assertiveness and high cooperation
Occurs when both parties work together to maximize outcomes
high assertiveness and high cooperation
occurs when conflict is resolved through give and take concessions
no one wins or loses
(kissing my sister)
is a process in which two or more interdependent individuals discuss and attempt to come to an agreement about their different preferences
involves win lose negotiating over a fixed pie of resources
aimed at accomplishing a win win scenario
Each party determines what its goals are for the negotiation and whether or not the other party has anything to offer (single most important stage)
Each party makes a case for its position and attempts to put all favorable information on the table
The goal is for each party to walk away feeling like it has gained something of value (regardless of the actual bargaining strategy)
the stage most people think of when they hear negotiation
Closing and commitment
entails the process of formalizing an agreement reached during the previous stage
Power and influence
are moderately correlated to job performance
are moderately related to organizational commitment
when a leader draws on personal sources of power, such as expert power and referent power, a stronger emotional bond can be created with the employee, boosting affective commitment
Power and influence continued
the effective use of such power should increase job satisfaction and a sense of trust in the leader all of which are associated with increased levels of commitment
alternative dispute resolution
is a process by which 2 parties resolve conflicts through the use of a specially trained, third party
The goal of dispute resolution is to always have the two sides come to a voluntary agreement
requires a third party to facilitate the dispute resolution process, through this 3rd party has no formal authority to dictate a solution
occurs when a third party determines a binding settlement to a dispute
what are the four lobes of anterior teeth?
What are examples of phonological processes?
- The SEC specifies nine categories of nonaudit services that, with few exceptions, are considered to impair independence if provided to a public company audit entity
Who decides what can and cannot be said/shown on broadcast TV/Radio?
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