Part 14: Communication

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Terms in this set (54)
(Mode of communication)
Allows for ease of localization.
- If message can be seen, sender can be seen
- Can be rapidly transmitted and will rapidly fade out
- Message travels at speed of light
- Once sender stops sending, the message stops
- Can send variety of signals (brightness, color, spatial pattern, temporal pattern)
- Receiver and sender must be within visual distance of each other
- Signal can be partially or completely blocked
- Signals do not work well in dimly lit environ. or at night
chemical(Mode of communication) Can be olfactory, gustatory, or pheromonal in nature. - Can travel a good distance (scent and pheromones) - Works well in areas that are visually cluttered1. Can travel long distances 2. Longer-lasting (*EX: scent marking*) 3. Less energy to produce 4. Lower complexity 5. Rarely blocked by environmental obstaclesWhat are the 5 benefits of chemical communication?1. Slower transmission than visual/auditory 2. Harder to locate senderWhat are the 2 costs of chemical communication?water_____ is the best medium for longest transmission of taste. Otherwise, it cannot travel very far.air_____ is the best medium for travel of pheromones. *EX: female moth*chemoreceptionThe detection of chemical signals.aerial chemoreceptionThe detection of chemical signals in the air. *EX: female dog in heat*contact chemoreceptionThe detection of chemical signals through direct contact (touch). *EX: ants evaluating strangers*odor mosaicsA complex mixture of signals that can specify the signaler (to conspecifics). *EX: marmoset*vomeronasal organsThis begins as an evagination of the ventral olfactory mucosa that becomes isolated from the rest of the nasal cavity during development. - Tetrapods use this to detect pheromones. *EX: snakes, lizards, mammals*fleshman responseFacial movement that conveys chemicals to the receptors in the vomeronasal organs.1. Aggregation 2. Alarm 3. Releaser 4. Primer 5. Signal 6. Territorial 7. Trail 8. Sex 9. InformationWhat are the purposes of pheromones?aggregation(Purpose of a pheromone) Function in defense against predators, mate selection, and overcoming host resistance by mass attack.alarm(Purpose of a pheromone) Some species release a volatile substance when attacked by a predator, notifying conspecifics, that can trigger flight or aggression.releaser(Purpose of a pheromone) Cause alteration in the behavior of the recipient. - Elicits rapid response but is quickly degraded *EX: attractant molecules*primer(Purpose of a pheromone) Trigger change of developmental events. - Slow onset and long duration *EX: rabbit mammary pheromones*signal(Purpose of a pheromone) Cause short-term changes, such as a neurotransmitter release that activates a response.territorial(Purpose of a pheromone) Mark boundaries of an organism's territory. *EX: cat and dog urine*trail(Purpose of a pheromone) Will set out trail so conspecifics can find nest or resources. *EX: ants*sex(Purpose of a pheromone) Indicate availability of the female for breeding.information(Purpose of a pheromone) Indicative of an animal's identity or territory.touch(Mode of communication) - Travel short distance - Make it easier to locate sender - Speed of trans. is fast because of short distance - Can go around obstacles and work in dark - Durability is low - Complexity is low *EX: honey bees and workers weaver ants, primates*attenationThe cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things.electrical(Mode of communication) - Short effective distance - Can avoid environ. obstacles - High potentiality of receiver to locate sender - Rapid speed of transmission - Low range of duration - Low degree of complexity *EX: teleosts*multimodal(Mode of communication) Many times animals employ 2+ modes to communicate. - May require more energy from sender and more from receiver. *EX: dogs, birds*repetitive messages(Type of multimodal communication) Should produce same response in the recipient each time it is received. - Ensure that the msg is received and increases chance of understanding.nonrepetitive messages(Type of multimodal communication) Should produce a different response in the recipient since different messages are being received. - Can send more info per unit time. - Can increase complexity or efficacy of the communication.species recognition(Function of communication) Animals studied to date use multiple modes of communication to identify themselves to conspecifics. *EX: birds and song, toads and mating calls*1. Species recognition 2. Mate attraction 3. Maintenance of social bonds 4. Alarm 5. Aggregation 6. Agonistic MessagesWhat are the 6 functions of communication?mate attraction(Function of communication) Signals to attract a mate must be able to travel long distances and make it easy to locate the signaler. - Many species use chemical or auditory msgscourtship and mating(Part of mate attraction) Once individuals are loose enough to interact they will court before mating so as to size up the prospective reproductive partner.species recognition signalingSignals that allow conspecifics to locate and recognize each other. - Also convey info about gender and sexual receptivity. - Aspect of mate attraction *EX: bird songs, fireflies' luminescence, red deer roar*1. Courtship and mating 2. Identifying conspecific of opposite gender 3. Mate assessment 4. Coordinating reproductive behavior and physiologyWhat are the 4 parts of mate attraction?courtshipBehavior in mating that may involve complicated dances or touching, vocalizations, or displays of beauty or fighting prowess. *EX: blue footed booby dance*androstenonePheromone that male pigs have in their saliva that causes a sow to assume the mating stance when she is exposed to it.pair bondThe strong affinity that develops in some species between a pair of males and females potentially leading to producing offspring. - Occurs in monogamous species - Est. and maintained thru ritual displayssocial groomingGrooming that is used to maintain social bonds, and is distinct from grooming for hygienic reasons. - Means to reinforce social structures, family links, and build relationships. - Used as a form of reconciliation/conflict resolutionalarm signalAntipredator adaptation referring to various signals emitted by social animals in response to danger. - Can be visual, auditory, or olfactory. - Can be complexmobbing callsAn alarm that can signal conspecifics to join together to defend a resource or a member. - Considered distinct from alarm calls by some researchers. *EX: great tit songbird*agonistic communicationThis is conflict communication that includes contests and aggression between individuals, conflict over resources such as mates over territory, and dominance and submission displays.affiliative displaysThese are made to indicate that a dominant animal accepts the presence of another.round danceA specific communicative behavior of honey bees inside the hive that communicates the location of food sources close to the colony (<35 yds) by moving in a circular pattern. - Shortened form of waggle dancewaggle danceFigure-eight dance of the honey bee communicating distant nectar sources or pollen sources.Karl von FrischEthologist who was one of the first to translate the meaning of the waggle dance.