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BMS Chapter 16 Study Guide

Terms in this set (29)

Albumin: (Albuminuria) excessive albumin in the urine. Indicates an increase in the permeability of filtration membranes due to injury or disease, increased blood pressure, or irritation of kidney cells by toxins.

Glucose: (Glucosuria) indicates diabetes mellitus.

Hemoglobin indicates bleeding in the upper urinary tract.
Red blood cells have been present in the urine long enough to break open and release hemoglobin.

Red blood cells (erythrocytes): (hematuria) indicates a pathological condition. One cause is acute inflammation of the urinary organs as a result of disease or irritation from kidney stones. Other causes include; tumors, trauma, or kidney disease.

White blood cells in the urine
Indicate that an immune response is occurring.
Usually in response to infection of the urinary tract or the kidney.

Ketone bodies: (ketonuria) may indicate diabetes mellitus, anorexia, starvation, or too little carbs in diet.

Bilirubin: When red blood cells are destroyed by macrophages, the global portion of hemoglobin is split off and the heme is converted to biliverdin. Most bilivirden is converted to bilirubin, which gives bile its major pigmentation. An above-normal level of bilirubin in urine is called bilirubinuria.

Urobilinogen: The presence of urobilinogen (breakdown product of hemoglobin) in urine is called urobilinogenuria. Elevated amounts may be due to hemolytic or pernicous anemia, infectious hepatitis, biliary obstruction, jaundice, cirrhosis, congestive heart failure, or infectious mononucleosis.

Casts: Tiny masses of material that have hardened and assumed the shape of the lumen of the tubule in which they formed. They are then flushed out of the tubule when filtrate pressure builds up behind them. Casts are identified by the cells or substances that compose them or their appearance.

Microbes: The # and type of bacteria vary with specific infections in the urinary tract. one of the most common is E. coli. The most common fungus to appear in urine is the yeast Candida albicans, a cause of vaginitis. The most frequent protozoan seen is Trichomonas vaginalis, a cause of vaginitis in females and urethritis in males.