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AHD Final- Small ruminants and cammelids
Terms in this set (57)
What is usually the only vaccines needed for sheep, goats, llamas, and alpacas
Clostridial disease vaccines (CD & T)
What does CD & T stand for?
Clostridium perfringens types C & D and Tetanus toxoid
CD & T should be administered at approximately _____ months of age and boostered _____ month later
(CD & T) Annual booster should be given in 4-6 weeks before parturition ( if pregnant) to increase what?
Accute, infectious, non-contagious disease that originates in the gut of affected animals
(C. Perfringens) Conditions that favor multiplication of the organism and production of the toxin may result in what?
disease in susceptible animals
(Clostridium perfringens) Abruptly switching animals from ahigh roughage diet to a high concentrate diet frequently precedes an outbreak. T/F
Causes hemorrhagic enteritis in adult sheep, and lambs, kids ( and calves, piglets) less than 2 weeks of age
C perfringens type C
What are the clinical signs of C perfringens type C?
Diarrhea and colic may occur but sudden death is frequent
(C perfringens) Diarrhea may be what color?
yellow/brownish or hemorrhagic and gray/red with streaks of necrotic mucosa present
(C perfringens) Adults sheep may not have diarrhea any may show what?
acute abdominal pain
Known as the "overeating disease"
C perfringens type D
C perfringens type D is the most common form of what?
enterotoxemia in sheep and goats
(C perfringens type D) affected animals are usually well-nourished and on a high plane of nutrition. T/F
(C perfringens type D) Who are the most commonly affected?
Single lambs less than 12 weeks of age on high producing ewes
(C perfringens type D) The toxin is though to act on what?
the liver altering glycogen metabolism and causing vascular damage to the brain and kidney
What clinical signs may be seen with C perfringens type D?
Neurological signs including ataxia, blindness, or convulsions
(Clostridium tetani) ______ and ______ are more susceptible to tetanus than _______ and less susceptible than ________.
sheep, goats, cattle, horses
The clinical signs for clostridium tetani are similar to those discussed in equine diseases. T/F
What vaccine is given to camelids if commingled or exposed to horses
Equine Rhinovirus and Influenza
Group of foot conditions that affect cattle and sheep most frequently
Foot rot is caused by anaerobic bacteria ______________ and ___________________.
Dichelobacter nodosus, Fusobacterium necrophorum
(Foot rot) Animals housed in wet or unsanitary conditions predisposed
-Inflammation of interdigital spaces
-Break at the hoof-skin junction with mild lameness
-Progresses to severe lameness with foul odor and sloughing of sole
-Virulent form may cause sloughing of foot with fever and anorexia
-Bacteria may persist in the feet of carriers
Diagnosis for foot rot?
Clinical signs and bacterial culture
What is the treatment for foot rot?
-Astringent foot bath
-Remove from wet environment
Prevention of foot rot?
-Remove from wet environment
-Remove carrier animals
-Vaccination possible in resistant herds
Retrovirus that affects young goats between 1 and 4 months of age; occasionally seen in adults
Caprine arthritis encephalitis
Caprine arthritis encephalitis is passed in ______ and _______.
What is the subclinical form of Caprine arthritis encephalitis?
no clinical signs, up to 80% of animals are seropositive
What is the neurological form of Caprine arthritis encephalitis?
-ascending paresis and ataxia progressing to tetraplegia
-animal is BAR
-7-14 day clinical course
What is the arthritic form of Caprine arthritis encephalitis?
-occurs in older animals causing chronic polyarthritis, joint distention, hard udder, mineralization of joint capsules
-Especially seen in the carpus
-Also see gradual weight loss and poor hair coat
What is the diagnosis for Caprine arthritis encephalitis?
-AGID test determines exposure but not really useful unless present with clinical disease
-CSF analysis and necropsy helpful
Treatment for Caprine arthritis encephalitis?
There is no treatment
What is the prevention for Caprine arthritis encephalitis?
-Separate infected animals
-Remove kids from dam at birth and only feed negative colostrum from negative doe
-Feed kids pasteurized milk
Polio affects who?
Cattle, sheep, and goats
Polio is caused by what?
-Thiamine is synthesized by normal rumenal flora
-Flora is disrupted and thiamine is unavailable for glucose metabolism
-Brain is dependent on glucose for energy and the lack causes severe CNS signs
What are the clinical signs of Polio?
-Cortical blindness - intact palpebral and PLR but blind
-Strabismus and nystagmus, other general nervous system signs
-Opisthotonus at late stages, possible seizures
What is the treatment for polio?
-Thiamine 10 mg/kg IV, IM, or PO
-Tranquilizers if seizuring
Caseous lymphadentitis occurs in ______ and ________.
Superficial abscesses at the sites of lymph nodes caused by the bacteria
(Caseous lymphadentitis) Sheep may also develop internal abscesses that lead to?
(Caseous lymphadentitis) Bacteria is introduced to flock by an infected animal and is transmitted by contact or fomites (shearing instruments). T/F
What is the treatment for Caseous lymphadentitis?
-Isolation of infected animals
-Lance and drain abscesses
-Surgical removal of abscesses
-Antibiotics do not speed recovery
What is the prevention for Caseous lymphadentitis?
-Vaccine available for herd with continuous problems
-Removal of affected animals
Contagious ecthyma is known as what?
Contagious ecthyma is caused by what?
a parapoxvirus that is spread by direct contact
Crusty, proliferative lesions around mouth, eyes, nostrils, udder
Spontaneous recovery in 3 weeks
May see unthriftyness and unwillingness to eat due to pain in mouth
Ewes/does may be reluctant to let young nurse due to lesions on udder
What is the treatment for Contagious ecthyma?
-Supportive care for young animals unwilling to eat or nurse
-Antibiotics to control secondary bacterial infections
What is the prevention for Contagious ecthyma?
-Isolate infected animals
-Good hygiene - is transmissible to humans!!
Urolithiasis is most common in ________________.
castrated male small ruminants
A nidus forms and allows addition of solutes from urine, forming a stone
Clinical signs of Urolithiasis?
-Urine dribbling, hematuria, stranguria, crystals around prepuce
-Anorexia, depression, colic, abdominal distention
Treatment of Urolithiasis?
-Muscle relaxants, fluid therapy
-Amputation of veriform appendage in sheep/goats
Prevention of Urolithiasis?
-Increase water intake
-Reduce concentrate feeding
-Balance diet for calcium to phosphorus ratio of 2:1
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