FLVS Biology Module 3 - Cell Reproduction
Terms in this set (86)
Series of events in a cell's life cycle, in which it works, grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells.
Period of the cell cycle between cell divisions, when the cell works, grows, and duplicates the genetic material.
A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells during which the nucleus of a cell divides into two nuclei, each with the same number of chromosomes.
First phase of mitosis in which the genetic material condenses into visible chromosomes and the nuclear membrane breaks down
Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell.
Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell.
Phase of mitosis in which the distinct individual chromosomes spread out into tangled chromatin and new nuclear membranes form.
Division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells.
Thin fibers that are part of the cytoskeleton of a cell, responsible for separating the chromosomes during mitosis.
A type of asexual reproduction in which a prokaryotic cell replicates its DNA and then divides in half to produce two daughter cells.
A group of cells or an organism produced asexually from one ancestor, to which they are genetically identical.
Thin stringy substance found in nondividing nuclei that consist of DNA tightly coiled around proteins.
Condensed chromatin structure that contains genetic information that is passed on from one generation to the next.
A cell, such as a body cell, that contains two homologous sets of chromosomes.
The process of nuclear division in cells during which the number of chromosomes per cell is reduced by half through the separation of homologous chromosomes.
A form of reproduction in which new individuals are formed from one parent without the involvement of gametes.
A form of reproduction in which an offspring is formed from the combination of two gametes, one from each parent.
A cell that is produced through meiosis and only has one set of chromosomes.
Reproductive haploid cells produced through meiosis.
Chromosomes that determine the gender of an individual, such as the X chromosome and Y chromosome in humans.
Chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes.
Structure within a cell that helps organize spindle fibers during cell division.
Central region of the chromosome where the two sister chromatids are connected together.
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
One of two identical "sister" parts of copied chromosomes.
The scientific study of genes and heredity.
the total collection of genes in a population at any one time
differences in the genetic material of individuals within a species
One member of a pair or series of genes that occupy a specific position on a specific chromosome.
the number of times that a certain allele occurs in a gene pool compared to the total number of alleles in the same pool for a given gene, given as a decimal or a percentage
Offspring produced by a cross between parents with different traits.
Breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar parents.
An allele for a trait that tends to be expressed in the phenotype and mask the expression of a recessive allele.
An allele for a trait that will not be expressed in the phenotype unless the organism is homozygous for this trait.
Principle of dominance
Some alleles of a gene are dominant and others are recessive.
Law of segregation
The two genes of a given trait separate, or segregate, during gamete production
Genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes.
Having identical alleles for a given gene, such as AA or aa. (Greek prefix: homo = same)
Having two different alleles for a given gene, such as Aa. (Greek prefix: hetero = different)
The genetic makeup of an organism, including the two alleles it possesses for given genes. (Greek prefix gen = gene)
The observable physical or biochemical traits of an organism, as determined by genetic makeup. (Prefix: pheno= show or bring to light)
a specific characteristic of an individual
A type of grid used to show the gametes of each parent and their possible offspring.
A genetic cross using a single trait. (Prefix: mono = one)
A genetic cross using two different traits. (Prefix: di = two)
Situation when one allele is not completely dominant over another allele.
Situation in which one gene has more than two possible alleles.
Situation in which the traits (phenotypes) of both alleles are expressed completely.
Sex linked trait
A gene located on a sex chromosome.
Trait controlled by two or more genes.
Chart that shows the presence or absence of a trait according to the relationships within a family over several generations.
a change in a cell's genetic material
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
found mostly in the cytoplasm of a cell, and responsible for transmitting genetic information from DNA to cytoplasm
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
the type of RNA that carries copies of instructions for the synthesis of proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
the type of RNA that, together with proteins, forms the structure of ribosomes. The organelle responsible for protein synthesis in all living cells.
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
the type of RNA that carries each amino acid to the ribosome during protein synthesis
the process of copying of DNA during interphase, before cell division occurs
the principle enzyme involved in DNA replication
the synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template
the process in which the base sequences in mRNA are used to direct the arrangement of amino acids in protein synthesis
the principle enzyme involved in the transcription of RNA molecules
specific base sequences on the DNA molecule that signal where the RNA polymerase should begin transcribing a section of mRNA
a group of three nitrogenous bases in mRNA that codes for a specific amino acid to be added to the protein molecule
a group of three nitrogenous bases in tRNA that are complementary to a corresponding codon in mRNA
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
a chromosomal mutation in which all or part of a chromosome is removed
a chromosomal mutation that produces an extra copy of all or part of a chromosome
a chromosomal mutation that reverses the direction of parts of the chromosome
a chromosomal mutation in which one or more nucleotide is added to a DNA sequence
a chromosomal mutation in which part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome
Base pair substitution
a gene mutation in which one base pair in a DNA sequence is replaced with a different pair
Base pair insertion
a gene mutation in which one or more nucleotides are added to a DNA sequence
Base pair deletion
a gene mutation in which one or more nucleotides are removed from the DNA sequence
Germ line mutation
mutation that occurs in reproductive cells and ends up being carried by gametes (eggs and sperm)
the process by which a gene produces its product and the product carries out its function
chemical or physical agents in the environment that interact with DNA and may cause mutation
error during meiosis in which homologous or sister chromosomes fail to separate properly
a disorder in which some of the body's cells lose the ability to control growth and division
the deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material
a special type of enzyme that can link two DNA strands together
an organism with traits produced by recombinant DNA
DNA that is formed artificially by combining DNA from different organisms
a tool used by biologists that determines whether two samples of DNA are related by analyzing an individual's unique collection of DNA segments
a procedure used to separate and analyze DNA segments by placing them at one end of a porous gel and applying electrical voltage to the gel
physical and/or psychological need for a substance
intentional inappropriate use of drugs, repeatedly and willfully using a drug in a way other than prescribed or socially acceptable
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