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Chapter 7 and 8 Review
Terms in this set (73)
A cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how information is changed when it is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Encoding One of the three basic tasks of memory, involving the modification of information to fit the preferred format for the mem- ory system.
Organizing pieces of information into a smaller num- ber of meaningful units (or chunks)—a process that frees up space in working memory .
The third basic task of memory, involving the location and recovery of information from memory.
An especially clear and persistent form of mem- ory that is quite rare; sometimes known as "photographic memory."
A working-memory process in which information is merely repeated or reviewed to keep it from fading while in working memory. Maintenance rehearsal involves no active elaboration.
A working-memory process in which infor- mation is actively reviewed and related to information already in L TM.
The explanation for the fact that information that is more thoroughly connected to meaningful items in long-term memory (more "deeply" processed) will be remem- bered better.
A clear and vivid long-term memory of an especially meaningful and emotional event.
Fluid intelligence The ability to see complex relationships and solve problems.
A memory process that selectively retrieves memories that match (are congruent with) one's mood. Mood disorders Abnormal disturbances in emotion or mood, including bipolar disorder and unipolar disorder. Mood disorders are also called affective disorders.
Encoding specificity principle The doctrine that memory is encoded and stored with specific cues related to the context in which it was formed. The more closely the retrieval cues match the form in which the information was encoded, the better it will be remembered.
Serial position effect
A form of interference related to the sequence in which information is presented. Generally, items in the middle of the sequence are less well remembered than items pre- sented first or last.
A biologically organized mental structure in the brain that facilitates the learning of language because (according to Chomsky) it is innately programmed with some of the fundamental rules of grammar.
Applying a grammatical rule too widely and creating incorrect forms.
In Maslow's theory, the notion that needs occur in priority order, with the biological needs as the most basic. Hindsight bias The tendency, after learning about an event, to "second guess" or believe that one could have predicted the event in advance.
A mental representation of physical space.
About how many children have suffered from at least one incident of sexual abuse?
2% to 20%
What are the three tasks of memory?
What are the three memory stages (in order)?
What is the duration and capacity of each of the three memory stages?
Sensory: holds sights, sounds, smells, textures, and other sensory impressions for only a fraction of a second.
Working / Short Term: registers and connects it with items already in longterm storage. a few seconds and can hold up to 7 items at one time.
Long term: receives information
from working memory and can store it for much longer periods... sometimes for the rest of a person's life LTM holds all the information about our lives.
What are the various sensory registers for each of the senses called?
visual is iconic memory
auditory is echoic
tactile(touch) is tactile
olfactory sensory memory
gustatory (taste) is gustatory sensory memory
Types of memory - procedural v. declarative; episodic v. semantic; implicit v. explicit
Procedural: the register for the things we know how to do
Declarative: the facts we know and the experiences we remember (information we can describe)
What are the parts of the brain associated with memory?
Cerebral Cortex, Frontal Lobe, Prefrontal Cortex, Parietal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Hippocampus, and
H.M. - what is his story and what type of amnesia did he have?
H. M. lost most of his ability to form new
declarative memories after a botched brain operation.
He had anterograde amnesia (cannot transfer new memories)
Retrieval cues - how they work, what ones are best?
Stimuli that are used
to bring a memory to consciousness or into
The best way to add material to long-term memory is to associate it, while in working memory, with material already stored in LTM
The seven sins of memory - define and be able to interpret each in a given situation (examples - you tell me which sin!)
Transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution,
suggestibility, bias, and unwanted persistence.
What area of the brain is primarily concerned with speech production?
How does language develop?
3 to 4 months
from 1 to 2
2 years old
Telegraphic speech: using mostly verbs and nouns
What attributes do good thinkers possess?
not only do they have a repertoire of effective strategies, called algorithms and heuristics, they also know how to avoid the common impediments to problem solving
and decision making.
What are the aspects of problem solving: the 3 stages, algorithms v. heuristics; functional fixedness, and the various biases (availability, hindsight, confirmation, etc.)?
A methodical, logical rule pr procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier-but also more error-prone--use of heuristics.
A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgment and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier, but more error-prone than algorithms.
A four-part process that involves physiological arousal, subjective feelings, cognitive interpretation, and behavioral expres- sion—all of which interact, rather than occurring in a linear sequence. Emotions help organisms deal with important events. Emotional intelligence The ability to understand and control emotional responses.
The permissible ways of displaying emotions in a particular society.
Refers to all the processes involved in starting, direct- ing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities.
The ability to understand and control emotional responses.
Drive & drive reduction theory
Biologically instigated motivation.
Instinct theory (and associated psychologist)
The now-outmoded view that certain behaviors are completely determined by innate factors. The instinct theory was flawed because it overlooked the effects of learning and because it employed instincts merely as labels, rather than as explanations for behavior.
Social Learning theory (and associated psychologist)
Posits that learning is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through observation or direct instruction, even in the absence of motor reproduction or direct reinforcement.
Locus of control - external v. internal
An individual's sense of where his or her life influences originate—internally or externally.
Collectivism v. Individualism and the cultural differences
The view, common in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East, that values group loyalty and pride over indi- vidual distinction.
The view, common in the Euro-American world, that places a high value on individual achievement and distinction. Infancy In humans, infancy spans the time between the end of the neonatal period and the establishment of language—usually at about 18 months to 2 years.
Refers to the tendency of the body to maintain a certain level of body fat and body weight.
Stress v. stressor
A physical and mental response to a challenging or threat- ening situation.
A stressful stimulus, a condition demanding adaptation.
Pattern of failure to respond to noxious stimuli after an organism learns its responses are ineffective. Learning A lasting change in behavior or mental processes that results from experience.
Who studied people around the world and found that we share 7 basic emotions; and what are the 7 basic emotions?
Sadness, fear, anger, disgust, contempt, happiness, and surprise.
Women are more likely than men to show emotional disturbances in what 2 areas/disorders? Men are more likely to show this emotion.
What is the role of the limbic system in emotion?
It is the control system for behaviors used in attack, defense, and retreat.
What emotions are linked to which hemispheres of the brain?
What division of the nervous system is more active when we experience unpleasant stimulation? Pleasant stimulation?
What hormone is often associated with depression?
What are the differences between the James-Lange theory of emotion, the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, Schacter's two-factor theory of emotion, and the opponent-process theory of emotion?
Trembling causes fear
Fear and trembling at the same time
Fear causes trembling
What is missatribution of emotion and what theory of emotion does it belong to?
It describes the process whereby people make a mistake in assuming what is causing them to feel aroused.
What is the inverted "U" function and according to it, what creates optimal performance?
Describes the relationship between arousal and performance.
(Both low and high levels of arousal produce
lower performance than does a moderate level of arousal.)
Explain Goleman's marshmallow experiment and what his results found out about those who did and those who did not wait for the experimenter to return.
If decided to wait they would receive an extra marshmallow.
The children who were able to wait for the experimenter to return became more successful later in life
Why are polygraph tests not used in court?
They are very unreliable with no standard/base for results.
What does motivation do for us?
Select and direct our behavior.
What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation?
Intrinsic: The desire to
engage in an activity for its own sake, rather
than for some external consequence, such as
Extrinsic: The desire to
engage in an activity to achieve an external
consequence, such as a reward.
What is Maslow's hierarchy of needs/ humanistic theory of motivation and what are some of its flaws?
Your most pressing needs, which occur in a natural hierarchy, or order of importance.
What can happen when you provide an external reward for a behavior that is already intrinsically motivated?
The behavior becomes less attractive to the person preforming it.
What hormone regulates our feeling of fullness or hunger?
Leptin and insulin.
What do we know about weight control? What works/does not work?
30% of American adults can be classified as obese.
The best pathway to long-term weight control involves maintaining a well-balanced diet and a program of moderate exercise.
What are some factors that contribute to eating disorders in young people?
Media and genetics.
What mental disorder has the highest mortality rate?
What is volumetric thirst and osmotic thirst and what causes each?
Volumetric thirst: caused by a drop in blood plasma levels, as a result of decreased extracellular fluid (fluid outside the cells in your body, as in the blood).
Osmotic thirst: results from water moving through the cell walls of your body and escapingin the form of sweat, urine, feces, mucus, or the moisture in your breath.
How does sexual motivation resemble hunger?
Both are biological drives and can be influenced by learning (may involve unconscious processes).
Describe Masters and Johnson's study of human sexuality, the results/findings of the study, and the conclusions they made from the study.
They studied sex by observing and recording the physiological patterns of people engaging in sexual activity. (Various types including masturbation and intercourse)
Sexual response cycle (excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution)
What is the largest human sex organ?
What are the four different kinds of conflict? Can you give and example of each?
Approach-approach: too equally attractive options from which to choose
Approach-avoidance: appealing and negative aspects to both choices
Avoidance-avoidance: two equally unattractive options
Multiple approach avoidance: options that have both many attractive and many negative aspects.
What is the physical response to stress and what does it begin with?
1. An initial arousal
2. A protective behavioral reaction, often taking the form of the fight-or-flight response
3. Internal responses of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and endocrine system
4. A decrease in the effectiveness of the immune system
What are the stages of the General Adaptation Syndrome and what happens in each stage?
Alarm reaction: the hypothalamus sets off an emergency response in the hormone system.
Resistance: the body adapts to and
uses resources to cope with a stressor.
Exhaustion: the body depletes its
resources in responding to an ongoing stressor.
What type of stressor would most likely cause the immune system to malfunction and could cause the most bodily harm?
What is the difference between type A and type B personalities when it comes to dealing with stress? Which type would have a higher chance of suffering a heart attack?
A's experience more stress because of their perfectionism. (More likely for a heart attack)
B's tend to be more relaxed.
What is the difference between acute and chronic stress?
Acute: A temporary pattern of
stressor-activated arousal with a distinct onset and limited duration.
Chronic: Continuous stressful
arousal persisting over time.
What are some positive ways to deal with stress?
Meditation, exercise, and to talk about it.
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