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group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to the three bases of a codon of mRNA

E site

One of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. This site is the place where discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome.

Origin of Replication

Site where the replication of a DNA molecule begins, consisting of a specific sequence of nucleotides.

Gel Electrophoresis

procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel

Human Genome Project

An international collaborative effort to map and sequence the DNA of the entire human genome.


transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome


sequence of a eukaryotic gene's DNA that is not translated into a protein


An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer.

Poly (A) tale

long chain of Adenines that protect mRNA 3' end from enzymes in cytosol


A team of enzymes that hydrolyze DNA and RNA into their component nucleotides


region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA

Triplet Code

the normal version of the genetic code in which a sequence of three nucleotides code for the synthesis of a specific amino acid


Joins 3' end of DNA that replaces primer to rest of leading strand and joins Okazaki fragments of lagging strand


messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome

Missense Mutation

The most common type of mutation, a base-pair substitution in which the new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid.


a specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid

Cloning Vector

a carrier used to clone a gene and transfer it from one organism to another

Polymerase Chain Reaction

technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a particular gene

P site

one of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. It holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain.

5" Cap

The 5' end of a pre-mRNA molecule modified by the addition of a cap of guanine nucleotide.

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