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20 terms

Bio 2 Genetics Terms

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Anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to the three bases of a codon of mRNA
E site
One of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. This site is the place where discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome.
Origin of Replication
Site where the replication of a DNA molecule begins, consisting of a specific sequence of nucleotides.
Gel Electrophoresis
procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
Human Genome Project
An international collaborative effort to map and sequence the DNA of the entire human genome.
tRNA
transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
Intron
sequence of a eukaryotic gene's DNA that is not translated into a protein
Primase
An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer.
Poly (A) tale
long chain of Adenines that protect mRNA 3' end from enzymes in cytosol
Nuclease
A team of enzymes that hydrolyze DNA and RNA into their component nucleotides
Promoter
region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA
Triplet Code
the normal version of the genetic code in which a sequence of three nucleotides code for the synthesis of a specific amino acid
Ligase
Joins 3' end of DNA that replaces primer to rest of leading strand and joins Okazaki fragments of lagging strand
mRNA
messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
Missense Mutation
The most common type of mutation, a base-pair substitution in which the new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid.
Codon
a specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid
Cloning Vector
a carrier used to clone a gene and transfer it from one organism to another
Polymerase Chain Reaction
technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a particular gene
P site
one of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. It holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain.
5" Cap
The 5' end of a pre-mRNA molecule modified by the addition of a cap of guanine nucleotide.