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BIL 150 Animal Form and Function Pt.1
Terms in this set (45)
phylum to which vertebrates belong to
segmented spinal column
the human spinal cord is divided into different segments.
(cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral curvatures)
organisms having a backbone or spinal column
four fundamental tissues common to vertebrates
epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve
formed from ectoderm; sheets of tightly packed (often with tight junctions) cells that line body cavities and organ surfaces.
epithelial tissue function
prevents dehydration by forming a permeability barrier, provides a sensory surface and a secretory layer
stratified squamous epithelium
multilayered platelike cells; regenerates quickly. commonly found on surfaces subject to abrasion
(outer skin, lining of mouth)
simple squamous epithelium
single layer of platelike cells; is associated with functions of diffusion
brick shaped cells; associated with secretion or active absorption.
has diced shape cells, makes up kidney tubules and glands (thyroid and salivary)
single layer of cellsvarying in height and position of their nuclei; forms mucous membrane that lines portion of respiratory tract
conective tissue function
holds tissues and organs in place.
formed from mesoderm; generally consists of web of fibers in a liquid/jellylike/solid foundation
(3) types of connective tissue
collegenous, reticular, elastic
in connective tissue; secrete fiber proteins
in connective tissue; engulf foreign particles and any cell debris by phagocytosis
specialized loose connective tissue; pads and insulates body, stores fuel as fat molecules.
is where body fat is deposited; each cell contains large fat droplet that swells when fat is stored and shrinks when fat is used as fuel
liquid matrix (plasma) of water, salts, and dissolved proteins.
red blood cells (erythrocytes) and white blood cells (leukocytes) and cell fragments (platelets)
is a measure of the volume % of blood cells in blood.
fibrous connective tissue
dense with collagenous fibers. found in tendons and ligaments.
mineralized connective tissue. composed of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate ions hardened within a matrix of collagen
attach muscles to bones
connect bones at joint
is a protein
contains collagenous fibers embedded in chondroitin sulfate; strong and flexible
a rubbery protein-carbohydrate complex
provide strength and flexibiltiy
join connective tissue to adjacent tissues
make tissues elastic
loose connective tissue
most widespread connective tissue in vertibrate body; loose weave of all (3) fibers. found in skin and throughout body
muscle tissue and (3) types
responsible for nearly all types of body movement.
1.skeletal 2.smooth 3.cardiac
all consist of filaments containing actin and myosin (proteins) which allow muscles to contract
skeletal (striated muscle)
attached to bones by tendons,
is responsible for voluntary movements, consists of muscle fibers
long cells which form by the fusion of many cells (thus multiple nuclei in each fiber)
(lacks striations) found in organ walls. cells are spindle shaped. responsible for involuntary actions
(striated but branched in heart) forms wall of heart; similar contractile properties as skeletal muscle but also has fibers which relay signals to help synchronize heart contractions
nervous tissue function
formed from ectoderm; function in the receipt, processing, and transmission of information.
nerve cells (neurons)
in nervous tissue; transmit nerve impluses to other cells, neurons, muscles. also support glial cells.
is formed from a concentration of nervous tissue
help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons. in some cases, modulate neuron function
systems made from the (4) tissue types, and some others, which catalyze a physiological process
body has about ___ bones and more than ___ muscles
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