5 terms

Emergence of Complex Society in Ancient India, 2600 - 800 BCE

Civilization emerged. Centered around Indus River. Discovered in 1920s. Big cities and small towns. Geographically, biggest society in ancient world. Lots of unknown stuff. Clear signs of political system and hierarchy system, planned streets and wells and city drains means signs of governmental institutions, temple ruins show religious institutions, standardized weights show trade, Harappa goddess and fancy jewelry found hint at common religion and nobles and artisan jobs, and they may have had a writing system.
Decline and Disappearance
Everything disappeared. No more complex societies. 800 BCE: new complex society emerge in Ganges River. Lots of written evidence.
Conflicting Explanations
Indo-European Invasion: the "Aryans". Traditional theory. Group of people conquered the cities. Comes from languages. Long-term continuity: they kept existing. Migration and environmental change: people migrated in and mixed with people there, bringing about new culture. The river started drying up so they moved.
The Vedas
Started telling stories. Talked about warfare and conquering. Language: Sanskrit. Indo-European language. Gods: many same gods as in Hinduism. Castes: social stratification, categorized by occupation and social status due to occupation. Story that gods killed a giant and four castes came out: priests, warriors, merchants, and workers.
The Ganges River Valley, 800 BCE
Small city-states with different kings and chiefs and political instability. So warfare broke out between city-states, plus more complexity, plus more castes.