Medieval Architecture Final Exam
Terms in this set (109)
What impact did the Cistercians, the monastic order that arrived in England in the 12th century have on the spread of the Gothic?
Which form of educational institution did the medieval period establish and nurture?
Which space do we see repeated in castles, manor houses, yeoman's houses, small cottages, university colleges, and monasteries?
How are university colleges, monastery complexes and manor houses similar in their plans (i.e how they are laid out?)
What other buildings make up a university college?
How might you describe domestic & institutional medieval life?
'Medieval' means the _______ _____.
A period between the classical world of the Greeks and Romans and the rediscovery of classical culture called the Renaissance (or re-birth)
AD 450 up to 1066 (5th to 11th century)
1066 - 1189 (11th and 12th centuries)
What are the three phases of Gothic Architecture?
Early English, Decorated Gothic, Perpendicular
Early English Gothic
c1307 -c 1377
c 1377- c 1485
Titles were allocated to the Gothic period by ______ ________, a _________ architect and antiquary. They are not arbitrary.
Thomas Rickman, Victorian
Four building types
Secular domestic architecture, Institutions, vernacular architecture
_____________ architecture: churches, cathedrals and chapels
______ _______ architecture: castles, manor houses & yeoman's houses
___________: monasteries & universities
___________ architecture: a category of architecture based on local needs, construction materials and reflecting local traditions.
___% of surviving pre reformation are churches, cathedrals, or monasteries.
________ ________ are castles and domestic buildings that accounts for ____%
The two main geographical areas of England where Gothic 'arrived' through the work of ________ At _________ Cathedral, and through the ________ order in the North of England.
Where did Gothic orginate from?
Stokesay Castle, Shropshire is what sort of building?
Moated Manor House
Which house was built for John De Pulteney in 134?
Recognizing Saxon churches
1. Plan- Shift from _________ plan to ________ plan
2. Walls- Often of reclaimed _____ material, Ashlar stone, herringbone work, long and short quoins
3. Roofs- _______ pitched - largely only traces left on gable end walls
4. Decoration- _____ capitals, plain ______ profile mouldings
5. Towers- _____ arcading, _____ ___ _____ work
basilica, cruciform, Roman, steeply, block, square, blind, long and short
Which church did we visit in London to look at the Norman style?
St. Bartholowmew the Great
Where did we visit the see the transitional stage of Norman to Early Gothic?
Which Kent town did we visit to see the Norman Castle and cathedral with a Norman nave?
Introduction of the flying buttress, pointed arch and ribbed vaulting
Pointed arch openings and support are also knows as _______ arches.
Lancet windows that were larger and wider
Moldings carved with great depth
Large rose windows
Emphasis on increased height
Clusters of slender columns surrounding central pillar (or pier)
Very gothic style of vaulting. Many ribs of equal length form a pattern.
Vaulting with ribs that are all the same curve and spaced equidistantly resembling a fan.
Which two ecclesiastical Decorated Gothic buildings did we visit in London?
Holborn and Southwark Cathedral
Any transverse (crossing) part of the church, usually crossing the nave.
What are the main features of Decorated Gothic architecture?
For Perpendictular Gothic, we visited ___________________, which is thought to be the best example of this phase.
King's College Chapel
A _______ is a lordly residence which used the architecture of fortification either for defense or display.
Salisbury Cathedral, Wells Cathedral, and Westminster Abbey are examples of _______ _______.
Many historians assert that the ________ introduced castle building to England, but there is also a clear continuation of castle building from the ______ _____ period.
Normans, Anglo Saxons
_______ ______ built fortified dwellings called ________ which were communally maintained & managed & often associated with a settlement or a _____ , as were _______ castles.
Anglo Saxons, burhs, king, Norman
What is a key feature of English domestic architecture through to the 17th century that could be identified within every kind of residence, from palaces and castles to merchants' houses and farmsteads.
Both Clifford's Tower & Etampes are built up of the _____ _____ plan.
___________ is a system of land ownership- it sustained the castles.
Feudalism origins in ______ and _______ and was introduced by the ______.
France, Belgium, Normans
The castles built by William were built to protect the ________ of the individual who owned them- owners of castles managed their land for _______ purposes, parceling it out by fee to support following _______.
interests, military, soldiers
________ castles were initially ______ & _______ castles- built out of _______, quickly to house ______.
Ex. Windsor castle
Norman, motte, bailey, wood, troops
_______ means a raised earthwork or mound
_______ means an enclosure or courtyard
Mottes and Baileys had a number of weaknesses: they were not _________- not _____ _______ to house bigger groups of ________.
durable enough, big, troops
Once the _______ conquest took hold, they moved to building more permanent castles - called ______ keep or ______ keep castles.
Ex. _____ Tower and __________ Castle.
Norman, square, stone, White, Rochester
________ ______ and _______ _______ castles were much larger than motte and bailey ones and could keep more soldiers in them. Provided better ________ due to their size.
square keep, stone keep, defense
In their architecture the ________ carefully copied Roman forms, hence the descriptive name of their building style as ___________.
________ _______- circular or semi-circular, and more occasionally polygonal, designs reigned. ______ Castles- built by Edward I particularly in Wales.
Gothic castles, Concentric
Regularized castle plans with four towers set at the angles of a quadrangular enclosure also became common.
________ _______ redevelop French Gothic ideas in an idiosyncratic way. Amongst their most celebrated creations in this idiom are the series of castles built by __________ to secure his conquest of Wales from 1277.
English masons, Edward I
Harlech Castle, Gwynedd, Wales, 1283- composed of an ______ ______ wall and an ______ _____, the latter set with _______ towers & dominated by a _________.
outer apron, inner bailey, towers, gatehous
Before the Civil War castles were an accepted part of the landscape- both as ________ and heirlooms of the nobility- afterwards they were ______ ____, seen as architectural _______ to peace and the commonwealth.
monuments, hunted down, enemies
As well as Great Halls, Castles had ________- so in this way they are similar to cathedrals, medieval universities, and other residences such as manor houses.
English Castles were residences that housed _________- or a household of servants- the personal following attendant of anyone of status. The largest household was kept by the king.
The _________ oversaw those responsible for the practicalities of running the household including the preparation and distribution of food.
The ___________ worked to imbue the public operations of the household with ceremony and magnificence. Most households were ____ and ______ unless the head of the household was female and in that case she had ______ attendants.
chamberlain, male, celibate, female
Medieval household was ________- travelling from residence to residence - enabled a nobleman to use and inspect his far flung estates. Occasionally a residence could contain more than one household - i.e if a husband and wife are of sufficient stature- king and queen for example.
In _______ architecture, function governed form.
Many residences were defensive which meant large expanses of windows at low level did not occur.
________________ at parapet level were developed- missiles could be thrown through the _______. Feature of _________ _________.
machiolations, gaps, domestic architecture
Chimneys & louvres- most residences had open
_________- often ornamental exhibiting gothic features. Seen in _________ _________.
hearths, domestic architecture
Some chambers or rooms would have fire places (the first was built at the White Tower, Tower of London) .
_________- used in both ecclesiastical and secular architecture at roof level- they project from the roof and spout rainwater. Feature of ________ __________.
gargoyles, domestic architecture
Staircases were often spiral set into the turrets or the depth of a wall. Their narrowness assisted defense.
The basic form of all medieval manor houses is the same and is not found elsewhere in Europe:
1) a central ______ ______
2) the ______ rooms, on one side (_____)
3) service rooms on the other side (_______, _______)
great hall, lord's, solar, buttery, kitchen
A _____ _____ refers to the home of a lord or landowner.
Norman manor house was often ______ ___ and ______ and consisted of the arrangement of rooms we have already mentioned: a communal hall with a private solar at one end, kitchens at the other. They eventually incorporated more spaces like, the _______, pantry, ______, ________- often seperated from the great hall by a screen's passage.
walled in, moated, buttery, larder, wardrobe
Manor houses were built of ______ materials in _____ or _____ with a ______ roof.
local, brick, stone, timber
A ______ was someone whose position in society lay somewhere between the lesser nobility and the peasants- he may be a farmer, not a land owner but someone who farmed a small amount of land.
Two key differences between the Yeoman's house and that of a noble were, _____ and ________ ________. Whereas _____ was used for a noble's home, a yeoman's home was built of _____ and ______ and was considerably ______.
size, building materials, stone, plaster, smaller
Under a yeoman's houses' _________ roof the basic form was the _____: a hall open to the rafters, and two storeyed cross wings housing the solar and service rooms. Often the upper rooms hover away from the main line of the building- they are called _______.
thatched, same, jetties
For the sake of yeoman's houses, ______ were treated like crops in Medieval England - Oak was most common and was medieval England's best building material.
The timber frame of the Clergy House rests on a sill of ______- a material found in the area.
The ______ _______ provided living quarters for servants and retainers within the castle walls, as did monastic communities.
What five frames are a timber framed building composed of?
wall, roof, floor, cross, bays
The components of a timber frame are held together with _______.
joints (Vernacular buildings)
What are the four most common types of cross frames in a vernacular house?
post and truss, aisled and cruck
Traditional timber frames were intended to be _______ to view - and the spaces between the exposed timbers had to be filled.
Most common type of infil in vernacular houses was ______ & ____- oak staves are fixed into the 'gap' then wattle of (strips of hazel) is woven through it- the panel is then daubed with a mixture of clay, dung, and chopped straw. Panel is then limewashed or painted.
Before the late 16th century very few houses had glass- windows existed but left as openings- worst of the weather kept out using wooden shutters.
Doorways made of timber with the doorhead were treated as part of the frame.
Chimneys did not exist in houses until the 16th century, and later in small cottages. Smoke bays were often used to filter through the smoke out of the building .
Open halls of great halls were arranged on the hierarchy of society with the servants at the lower and services end; then the cross passage entrance; the screens passage; the lower bay of the hall; the fire; the upper bay with the high table; and then private apartments or solar.
Until the 17th century the majority of buildings in towns and cities were made of timber- turning point was the ______________________ in 1666 which destroyed so much, and the gradual availability of cheaper.
Great Fire of London
Urban buildings of high status (i.e those built by a wealthy patron) used crown posts and recessed-bay halls. Display of wealth was more common in towns so urban buildings tended to have more ornate frontages
Many incorporated shops which opened straight onto the street
A __________ _____ is a decorative, open timber roof truss- typical of English Gothic Architecture- they use short beam projecting from the wall on which the rafters land- the short beams are called hammer beams
Stone vaults/ ribbed barrel vaults
Some windows, but limited
Heavy walls, façade divided into 3 parts, towers
The series of arches supported by piers or columns separating the nave from the aisles.
The blind arcaded gallery below the clerestory; occasionally, the arcades are filled with stained glass.
A relatively slender, molded masonry arch in which ribs form the framework of the vaulting. A diagonal rib is one of the ribs that form the X of a groin vault. A transverse rib crosses the nave or aisle at a 90 degree angle.
An exterior masonry structure that opposes the lateral thrust of an arch or a vault.
In Roman basilicas and medieval churches, windows that form the nave's upper most level below the timber ceiling or the vaults
a small round window
A tall narrow window ending in a pointed arch