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PHYS 203 Final Review (Dowdy)
Terms in this set (190)
Which of the following is no longer considered valid?
The Ptolemaic System
Which element according to Aristotle is lowest?
According to Aristotle, wood floats because
the element wood is above water
The primary difference between science and philosophy revolves around
The object in the sky that apparently moves least in the course of time is
Which is not acceleration?
a car is on cruise control
Copernicus thought the earth went around the sun because
it was simpler than the sun going around the earth
Gravity is most easily associated with
A snail travels 45 cm in 20 min. Its average speed is (note convert min to hours)
When first proposed, a scientific idea is usually called a
When an object is accelerated
a net force acts on it
A stone is thrown upward from a roof at the same time as another, identical stone, is dropped from the roof. The two stones (careful)
reach the ground at the same time
Which one of the following represents a vector quantity?
55 km/hr towards the north
The weight of an object is
greater at the poles than at the equator
Which of Newton's laws is represented by the statement "an object in motion stays in motion unless acted upon by an external force?"
Relative to what she weighs on the earth, an astronaut visiting another planet
any of these choices, depending on the planet
The US monetary system was set up on the
A car rounds a curve on a level road. The centripetal force on the car is provided by
friction between the tires and the road
An object moving in a circle at constant speed is accelerated
towards the center of the circle
A bullet is fired upward. As it rises,
its mass remains the same while its weight decreases
A baseball hit for a homerun is accelerated, after it leaves the bat, in the
The "scientific method" is
a continuing process
According to Aristotle, what element was directly below water?
True or False: A moving car hits a stationary flying bug. The bug smashes on the windshield because it cannot sustain the equal force on the window.
Who is largely responsible for the philosophy of realism?
Gravity develops due to primarily
mass to mass attraction
Which of the following is not a vector quantity?
True or False: Your body most easily "feels" acceleration.
Newton's second law of motion implies
Which is not causing a force on a car?
You are riding a bicycle at constant speed when you throw a ball vertically upward. It will land
on your head
When a boy pulls a cart, the force that causes him to move forward is
the force the ground exerts on his feet
Which would change mass substantially?
none of these
The sum of two vectors is a minimum when the angle between them is
Can someone take 4 steps and end up where they started?
A truck is pulling a trailer up a hill. The force of the truck is ______ the force of trailer pulling the truck backwards.
Using a laser to checkout at the store is
Something that has magnitude and direction is called a
Which statement about the pair of units is true?
a yard is shorter than a meter
A bicycle travels 12 km in 2/3 hour. Its average speed (in km/hr) is
The prefix milli stands for
Centripetal acceleration is always pointed
either of these depending on the situation
Which of these best models Newton's first law?
a heavy rock rolls down the hill and is hard to stop
The weight of an object is the
force with which it is attracted to the earth
Of the following, the longest is
The law of gravity
holds everywhere in the universe
True or False: Kepler thought that Ptolemy was incorrect.
True or False: Galileo was lifelong friends with the pope.
A student makes money by using an idea to make a product for money best represents
Which is associated with Newton's third law?
A baseball has the same force on it that a bat does when it hits the ball
Which of the following is not one of the inner planets?
follows orbits around the sun
The largest known meteorite has a mass of
The planet with the longest day is
A planet with two satellites is
The planet with the largest satellite is
The planet that appears brightest in the sky is
Of the following planets, the one with the thinnest atmosphere is
shows signs of volcanic activity in the past
The surface of Mars does not contain
sometimes have satellites
If Jupiter had more than about 80 times its present mass, it would
be a star
A dwarf planet
need not be massive enough to have cleared other objects from the neighborhood of its orbit
If the moon were smaller than it is, total eclipses of the moon would
occur more often than now
The moon has an abundance of
Relative to the oldest rocks that have been found on the earth, the oldest lunar rocks are
In the past 3 billion years the main influence on the lunar landscape has been
Which of the following can appear as disks with the help of a telescope?
A star whose spectral lines are shifted toward the red end of the spectrum
is moving away from us
The temperature of the sun's photosphere is about
Cepheid variable stars
have luminosities related to their periods of variation
A star must have a certain minimum mass in order that gravity squeeze its matter sufficiently to
produce a temperature high enough for nuclear reactions to start
In the HR diagram, most stars are
members of the main sequence
Stars at the lower end of the main sequence have
low temperatures and small masses
The majority of main-sequence stars are (colors)
The main sequence on the HR diagram includes
Red giant stars
have relatively low surface temperatures
White dwarf stars are not
do not have enough mass to become true stars
Brown dwarfs are
A supernova explosion may leave behind a
The heaviest elements on the earth were produced in
Relatively few stars become
Black holes are the remnants of
stars with large masses
A gamma-ray burst is a short, intense flood of gamma rays
that may have caused biological extinctions in the past
Our galaxy is shaped roughly like a
The sun is
a Population I star
A source of radio waves from space is
fast electrons that move fast through magnetic fields
apparently occurs in all galaxies
The ratio of dark matter to ordinary matter in our galaxy is about
In the past several billion years the rate of expansion of the universe has
has an unknown nature as yet
The "big bang" refers to the origin of
Information about the origin of the universe does not come from the
fact that spiral galaxies rotate
In a "closed" universe
expansion will stop and the universe will ultimately collapse
Present evidence suggests that the universe
will expand forever
The cosmic background radiation today
is present everywhere in the universe
Immediately after the big bang, the universe contained
slightly more antimatter than matter
As they came into being, the planets were primarily heated by
Planetary systems are probably
present around many stars
Of the following gases, the least abundant in the atmosphere is
Atmospheric pressure is half its sea-level value at an altitude of about
5 km (16,400 ft)
CFC and HCFC gases, which are widely used in refrigeration and in foam plastics, catalyze the breakdown in the upper atmosphere of
A characteristic feature of the stratosphere is the presence of
Completely dry air has a relative humidity of
When the temperature of a volume of air is equal to its dew point, the relative humidity of the air is
The atmosphere is heated chiefly by
infrared radiation from the earth
Air near the equator averages higher temperatures than air near the poles because
sunlight falls more nearly vertically at the equator than near the poles
The earth's axis is currently tilted relative to the plane of its orbit by
Everywhere north of the Arctic Circle
there is no sunlight only at the winter solstice, which is usually December 22nd
A wind in the Southern Hemisphere begins to blow toward the north. Because of the Coriolis effect the wind is deflected
toward the west
Stable weather is associated with
The doldrums of the equatorial regions
have abundant rainfall
have occurred often in the past
It is believed that India
was once separated from Asia and later migrated to its present position
Pangaea consisted of
Laurasia and Gondwana
The layer of soft rock under the lithosphere is called the
The magnetizations of ocean-floor rocks alternate in direction in strips
parallel to adjacent midocean ridges
The boundary between two plates that are sliding past each other is called a
The youngest of the following mountain ranges is the
Scientific observation does not support
the origin of the earth in 4004 B.C
Each of the following elements has at least one radioactive isotope. Which is not useful in geochronology?
A suitable object for radiocarbon dating would be one whose age is
Most fossils are found in
sedimentary rocks that formed from deposits on the floors of shallow seas
The oldest division of geologic time is
In general, ancient forms of life are
simpler than those of today
Evolution in living things
is continuing today
Flowering plants first appeared in the
Mammals originated in
the Mesozoic era
Mammals were the dominant form of life in
the Cenozoic era
Which of the following statements is in accord with present knowledge? (coal and petroleum)
Coal originated from plant matter and petroleum from marine life
The leading explanation for the disappearance of the dinosaurs ascribes it to
an asteroid impact
Climates in the Cenozoic era
were sometimes cooler and sometimes warmer than today
The earth's crust in midocean
may have rifts through which molten rock rises and spreads out
Gondwana did not contain
The oldest of the following is the
A subduction zone is never
located at a midocean ridge
The correct sequence of geologic time divisions from longest to shortest is
era, period, epoch
Large-scale biological extinctions can be caused by
all of these choices
Arrange the following animals in the order of their appearance in the geologic record:
4, 2, 3, 1
Pangaea split into Laurasia and Gondwana during
the Mesozoic era
The dinosaurs disappeared at the end of
the Mesozoic era
The watt is a unit of
On a molecular level heat is
An object that has linear momentum must also have
A golf ball and a ping-pong ball are dropped in a vacuum chamber. When they have fallen halfway down, they have the same
What never changes when two or more objects collide is
the total momentum of all the objects
Ozone protects us from _______ waves/particles
When heat is added to a body of matter, the resulting temperature increase does not depend upon
Which of the following quantities is independent of the size and shape of an object composed of a given material?
The properties of several different materials are being compared. If the samples all have the same volume, the one with the greatest mass also has the greatest
A barometer measures
Ice floats in water because
its density is less than that of water
Of the following, a molecule is best described as
the smallest particle of a substance that is representative of the substance
Which of the following is not true of molecular motion in a gas?
There is a definite average direction of motion at a given temperature
Heat transfer by convection occurs (which states of matter)
only in liquids and gases
The freezing point of a substance is always lower than its
The melting point of water is 0 degrees Celsius. Its freezing point is
0 degrees Celsius
A 200m-high gravitational roller coaster will be going how fast at the bottom of a 200m drop? Assume all potential energy at the top.
On the thermos demonstrated in class, the mirror contained heat by
The physics of a heat engine cannot be used to understand the operation of a
A temperature of 20 degrees Celsius is the same as
68 degrees Fahrenheit
Which of the following formulas relating to temperatures on the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales is correct?
Which of the following is a measure of the movement of molecules vibrating rotating or translating?
Average energy use per person in the United States today is about
4 times the world average
Solar radiation is ultimately responsible for
Of the following energy sources, the one most likely to run out of reserves first is
The earth's atmosphere is mainly heated by
infrared light radiated by the earth
Clouds trapping IR radiation from the earth is much like:
blankets on a bed
The world's largest importer of oil is
The United States
In the United States, bioethanol from corn is added to gasoline for vehicle fuel because
government action favors its production and use
A bomb dropped from an airplane explodes in midair.
its total kinetic energy increases
The upper limit to the speed of an object with mass
is the speed of light
Which of the following is not a fossil fuel?
Most oil today is used for
A bi-metallic strip was demonstrated in class as a way to measure
The average amount of CO2 emitted each year per person in the USA is about _____ tons
A person stands on a very sensitive scale and inhales deeply. The reading on the scale
any of the above, depending on how the expansion of the person's chest compares with the volume of air inhaled
Heat transfer in a vacuum can occur by
Which is a Halogen element and part of CFC
Which of the following is not used to make a commonly used thermometer?
sound of the vibrations
When evaporation occurs, the liquid that remains is cooler because
the slowest molecules remain behind
The radiation from an object at room temperature is mainly in the form of
Which of the following is the most abundant energy source on the earth?
For a vacuum thermos, the primary thermal insulator against conduction is the
True or False: A thermometer is always based on at least one physical property.
True or False: Energy is always converted from one to another.
Which of the following is conserved?
both B and C (momentum and energy)
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