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For Credit By Exam

Top 5 Revenue Sources

Federal Income ($41.4 bill), Sales tax ($19.6 bill), Bond and Note Proceeds ($16.4 bill), Other ($7.8 bill) and Investments ($7.4 bill)

Top 5 Spending Categories

Public Assistance Payments ($34 bill), Intergovernmental Payments ($28.2 bill), Interfund Transfers/Others ($14.9 bill), Salaries and Wages ($10.6 bill) and Employee Benefits ($7.5 bill)

Plural Executive Branch

All executive officers (except Secretary of State) are elected independently making them directly answerable to the public as opposed to the governor

Executive Branch

Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Comptroller of Public Accounts, Land Commissioner, Attorney General, Agriculture Commissioner, Texas Railroad Commission, State Board of Education, Secretary of State


Commander-in-chief of state militia, can convene legislature, no term limit

Lieutenant Governor

President of the Senate, controls the budgeting process as a leader of the Legislative Budget Board

Comptroller of Public Accounts

responsible for collecting substantially all tax revenue owed to the Sate, collects and remits the local portion of tax revenue to cities, counties, and special districts, operates various pre-paid college tuition funds operated by state

Land Commissioner

administers use of all state-owned lands, authorizes exploration and exploitation of public lands, must reconcile the economic use of natural resources with environmental protection and conservation

Attorney General

handles legal related activities every time a lawsuit is filed against or by the state, provide support and advice to local officials, promote public awareness on crime and safety issues

Agricultural Commissioner

enforces food inspection, animal quarantine, licensing, disease and pest control, and promoting exports.

Texas Railroad Commission

three members serving staggered terms, regulates state and interstate railroads, oil and gas industry, trucking, and mining

State Board of Education

15 board members from districts across state, oversee instruction, school initiatives, and school finances

Secretary of State

administers elections, maintains some financial records

House of Representatives

150 members from single-member districts, 68% republican, lower house, leader is Speaker of the House


31 members from single-member districts, 61% Republican, upper house, leader is Lieutenant Governor

Judicial Branch

5 levels of Courts: Supreme Court (1), Court of Criminal Appeals (1), Court of Appeals (2; major cities), District Courts (3, trials for general jurisdiction), County Courts (3), Commissioners Courts (4), Courts of Justice of the Peace (lowest court)

Texas Supreme Court

hears only civil cases, no criminal cases EXCEPT when the defendant is a juvenile

Court of Criminal Appeals

hears only criminal cases, does NOT hear criminal cases where defendant is a juvenile

Political culture

classical liberalism, social conservatism, and populism

Classical Liberalism

primary political value placed on political arrangements that allow for the fullest exercise of political liberty as long as the rights of others are not unreasonably restricted

Social Conservatism

traditional hierarchical social relations, opposes social change


held every two years (even-numbered), first Tuesday after first Monday in November

Special Elections

fill mid-term vacancies in state legislature, vote on proposed elections to state Constitution, select city council members

Voting Requirements

citizen of U.S., at least 18, registered to vote, resident of Texas for at least 30 days, no convicted felons, must be mentally competent

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