begins at the end of the classical era ends around 1450 call it the "3rd wave civ"
While culturally unique, features among each of the new "third-wave civilizations" point to what distinct patterns of development?
States, cities, class and gender inequalities Borrowed from established civilizations Started after 500 CE
What is the most important common thread among third wave civilizations?
Tons of interaction with others Large empires ruled by pastoral people who ruled agricultural people -Arabs, Mongols, Aztecs
Why is Islam seen as the most influential of the new "third-wave civilizations?"
Came closer than any had ever come to uniting all mankind under its ideals.
Europe (Byzantine Empire/Holy Roman Empire)
The Roman Empire splits Byzantine Empire - Eastern half of the Roman Empire that lived on Holy Roman Empire -Not holy, not Roman, not an empire -Decentralized -Becomes the feudal system (small kingdoms) (dippin' dots)
China - Sui, Tang, Song - Middle ages dynasties -Go back to Confucian traditions India - stays decentralized -Keeps caste -Some Muslims take parts of India West Africa - becomes Muslim -Islam really spread by trade
Aztecs in Mexico Inca in Peru (Andes, South America) Both are very bureaucratic/elaborate
Why were political systems important for trade?
State's size and stability encouraged travelers and traders. Wealth from taxes led to more power for the state. First Rome and China made trade safe. (classical) 600s 700s - Byzantine, Tang and Abbasid made trade safe. 1200s - Mongols controlled almost all of the Silk Roads
What was trade like in third wave civilizations?
Indirect Network across vast land
What's the deal with inner and outer Eurasia?
Outer - warm, good water and soil -China, India, Mediterranean Inner - harsh, dry, pastoral -Eastern Russia, Central Asia
What did large-scale empires and long-distance trade facilitate?
The spread of ideas, technologies, food crops, and germs far beyond their points of origin
What specifically did the following regions or peoples diffuse through trade?
China: the technology of manufacturing raw silk India: crystallized sugar, the concept of zero, cotton textiles Arabs: Islam The Americas/Mesoamerica: corn Eurasia and North Africa: disease—the plague
How were goods transported along the Silk Roads to sustain the networks of exchange among its diverse people?
Camel caravans Through deserts and oases Silk was used as currency in Asia -Symbol of high status Not made in W. Europe until 1100s
Why did Han China extend its authority westward?
Wanted to control the Xiongnu (nomads) and get "heavenly horses" for their military. Heavenly horses - well trained, easy to ride, some said they sweat blood
What made silk such a highly desired commodity across Eurasia?
Silk symbolized luxury. China held a monopoly on silk-producing technology. Cotton textiles from India was great in the Roman Empire as well
How did the impact of the long-distance trade of silk economically and socially affect the Chinese peasants?
Some stopped growing food crops and made silk, paper, porcelain and iron tools. This is an example of long-distance trade trickling down to common farmers.
Why did Buddhism appeal to the merchants along the Silk Roads?
It was for all people, not just Brahmin and higher castes. Merchants were lower to middle class at best. In China, it was the religion of foreign traders and rulers.
In what way did Buddhism pick up elements of other cultures along the Silk Roads?
Monasteries became more secular. Shifted to Mahayana, which reflected influence from monotheistic religions. Some statues of Buddha show Greek influences from Alexander's conquests Gods from other faiths were incorporated into Mahayana Buddhism.
. After the spread of the Black Death to Europe, what were two economic consequences of the disease?
Less tenant farmers and urban workers could demand higher wages b/c there are less of them. Landowners lost money because demand for grain dropped.
Before the Black Plague, what other diseases were spread?
Unknown epidemic in 500BCE Athens from sea exploration Han and Roman smallpox and measles
how did it spread?
Thanks to the Mongols control of Eurasia, it spread. May have been anthrax, the plague or a mix of goodness 1/3 of Europe killed Gave Europeans a secret weapons when exploring in 1500s
Why did the exchange of diseases give Europeans a certain advantage?
Exposure over time had provided them with some immunity to Eurasian diseases
How did sea trade begin?
Lots of trade on Mediterranean by 1000CE centered in Venice Mediterranean linked Europe to Indian Ocean through rivers in Egypt Ancient Indus writing may have influenced cuneiform from Mesopotamia Egyptians and Phonecians traded on Red Sea
How did the transportation operation of the Indian Ocean trading network differ from that of the Silk Roads?
Costs were lower than on land Silk Roads were only for luxury goods Sea Roads relied on monsoon wind currents. India was center of the Sea Roads, but not the Silk Roads.
. Why did the tempo of Indian Ocean commerce pick up in the era of classical civilizations?
Sailors learned how to ride the monsoons
What region became the center (fulcrum) of the Indian Ocean commercial network?
India -Had goods from east and west. -Lots of port cities. Trading with Southeast Asia by 100CE and all around the Indian Ocean as far as Egypt.
In what ways did China contribute to the growth of trade in the Indian Ocean between 500 and 1500 c.e.?
Tang and Song dynasties encouraged sea trade. Big economy led China to send tons of products out for trade. Larger ships and magnetic compass added to growth.
. What other changes occurred during the flourishing of Indian Ocean commerce after the rise of Islam in the 7th century?
Arab Empire—Brought together many different cultures and economies into one political system. This made trade very easy for Arabs. Middle East—Middle Eastern gold and silver went to southern India to purchase pepper, pearls, textiles, and gemstones. Muslim merchants—Islam loved merchants. (Muhammad was a merchant) Muslim culture spread far and everyone was part of the same culture even if they were far apart. Mesopotamia/East Africa—Using wasteland in Mesopotamia to cultivate sugar and dates brought thousands of slaves there from East Africa for plantations and salt mines in terrible conditions.
What was the importance of Srivijaya?
Malay Peninsula was choke-point between China and India trade. Gained much money, power and new military brought security to the area.
What other Southeast Asian places were influenced by trade?
Burma -Ankor Wat - huge Buddhist temple -First Hindu -Then Buddhist
What were the economic and cultural roles of the Swahili civilization in the world of Indian Ocean trade?
Economically: cities took goods from African interior and exchanged them on the coast for foreign products like porcelain, silk and rugs -Major port cities on the coast Culturally: many ruling families of Swahili cities claimed Arab or Persian descent to show prestige -Coast became Muslim, interior stayed African Politically: they were competing city-states like Greece -focused on trade and profit
Trans-African trade was rooted in environmental variation
Sahara - copper, gold and salt The savanna grasslands immediately south of the Sahara produced—grain crops like millet and sorghum. The forest areas farther south had yams
What changes did trans-Saharan trade bring to West Africa?
The camel brought the biggest change Led to the exchange of mined gold from Sahara out into the rest of the world Muslims traded slaves along the Sahara Sudanic states develop big urban trading centers
West African Trade ?
Camel caravans - 5000 camels and hundreds of ppl Gold trading leads to strong empires in West Africa that grew by taxing merchants
richest human being in the history
Compare some factors that inhibited the development of long-distance exchange networks in the Americas, as opposed to Eurasia.
Aztecs and Incas probably didn't know the other existed Less interactions because no horses, donkeys or camels. No wheeled vehicles or ocean-going ships Geography
What was trade like in the Americas?
Loose interactive web in North America Major trade network in Mesoamerica
were is Cahokia located?
Near St. Louis on the Mississippi River Right in the middle of the loose network of American trade
What were Inca roads used for?
Transporting state controlled goods by pack animals or messages by foot 2,000 inns where travelers could get food and shelter Relay system for messages could cover 150 miles in one day.
Why did the Andean Inca Empire largely control trade, not allowing a professional merchant class to emerge?
Incan trade was state-run. No free market (capitalism) like Aztecs
How is modern trade different from premodern trade?
Premodern was mainly for self consumption Premodern had fewer wageworkers Premodern was mainly luxury goods Premodern was much more local Premodern was much more equal among trading societies
A Chinese Buddhist in India?
Traveled there for clarification of Buddhism Visits the Bodhi Tree, cries Visits a monastery/university
how were the towns and villages made?
Walls around the cities and each individual house Untouchables live outside the city -Butchers, fishers, executioners
Different sects in India vary in their worship Great (Mahayana) and Little (Theravada) vehicles live in different parts of town The more you know about Buddhism, the more stuff you get (paid for by tithe to the monastery) If you make a mistake, you're thrown in a ditch.
how does castes and marriages work?
Marry outside your Jati? -You become your husband's Jati Women can't remarry (men can)
Manners and Justice?
Infidelity (cheating on your husband/wife) or failing at filieal piety? -Cut of your nose, or ears, or hands or feet Major crimes = imprisonment Minor crimes = fines
who was Marco Polo?
Wealthy merchant's son Traveld on the Silk Roads to Yuan (Mongol) China in 1200s Was an official to Kublai Khan during Pax Mongolica Lived in Hangzhou, one of the largest cities in the world
an Arab in West Africa Muslim?
Ibn Battuta - 1300s - traveled 75,000 miles throughout the Arab world -China in the east, Spain in the west Traveled on pilgrimage and with merchants Not a stranger in a strange land like Polo - Always was under the Muslim world -Not as impressed as Polo was