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Functions of muscles

movement of body parts and organ contents
maintain posture and prevent movement
communication-speech, expression and writing
control of openings and passageways
heat production


larger blood vessels and nerves, stretch receptors
surrounds bundle of cells called a fasicle


inner most; allows room for capillaries and nerve fibers

direct muscle attachments

epimysium (muscle) is continuous with periosteum (bone)

indirect muscle attachments

epimysium continues as tendon or aponeurosis (broad sheet) that merges into periosteum as perforating fibers

muscle attachment to dermis

allows you to smile

muscles involved in laughing

levator labii superioris
zygomaticus minor
zygomaticus major

muscle affected by whiplash


intrinsic muscle

entirely contained within a particular region; both origin and insertion

extrinsic muscle

acts upon a designated region but has its origin elsewhere

intrinsic tongue muscles

vertical, transverse and longitudinal fasicles

extrinsic tongue muscles

connect to the tongue behind hyoid, styloid process, palate and inside of chin

Biting and Chewing (mastication)

Temporalis and Masseter elevate the mandible
Medial and Lateral Pterygoids help elevate, but produce lateral swinging of jaw

muscle used to yawn


muscles used in breathing

diaphragm and external intercostal muscles


Which requires more muscular effort-inhaling or exhaling?

normal expiration

requires little muscular activity
elastic recoil and gravity collapses the chest

muscles of respiration

internal and external intercostals

internal intercostals

extend upward and anteriorly from rib to rib

external intercostals

extend downward and anteriorly from rib to rib

4 pairs of sheetlike muscles of abdomen

external oblique
internal oblique
transverse abdominis
rectus abdominis

rectus abdominis

muscle referred to as six pack

erector spinae group

responsible for back pain?
3 columns muscle from sacrum to ribs
extends vertebral column

Inguinal hernia

most common type of hernia (rare in women)
viscera enter inguinal canal or even the scrotum

Pectoralis Minor

protracts and depresses scapula

Serratus Anterior

abducts and rotates or depresses scapula
throwing muscle


braces the shoulder and limits movement

4 Posterior Scapular Muscles

rhomboideus minor
rhomboideus major
levator scapulae

pectoralis major/latissimus dorsi

muscles crossing shoulder joint to humerus


prime mover of humerus

teres major

assists in extension of humerus

Rotator Cuff Muscles (SITS)

teres minor

Rotator Cuff Muscles (SITS)

4 muscles that help reinforce joint capsule of shoulder

Principle Flexors of Elbow

biceps brachii


biceps brachii inserts on ___


brachialis inserts on ___


synergistic flexor of elbow

triceps brachii

prime extensor of elbow


triceps brachii inserts onto


muscle action makes palm face anteriorly


muscle action makes palm face posteriorly


inserts into fingers


inserts onto carpal bones


inserts into thumb

thenar group

fleshy base of thumb muscles

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

repetitive motions cause inflammation and pressure on median nerve

Iliopsoas muscle

crosses anterior surface of hip joint and inserts on femur
major hip flexor

Gluteus maximus

forms mass of the buttock
provides most of lift when you climb stairs

Iliotibial band

band of fascia lata attached to the tibia

Deep Gluteal Muscles

Shifts body weight when foot is lifted

Adductors of the Hip Joint

Adductor magnus
Pectineus, Adductor brevis and Adductor longus adduct femur


flexor of the knee

Muscles acting on knee

4 headed muscle attaches to tibial tuberosity (next slide)
quadriceps femoris tendon attaches to patella

quadriceps femoris

4 headed muscle that extends knee joint

Extensor hallucis longus

muscle used for extension of big toe and ankle

Calcaneal (Achilles) Tendon

strongest tendon in the body

Gastrocnemius (calf)

flexes knee and plantar flexes ankle


plantar flexes ankle

posterior (flexor) compartment of the thigh

contains hamstring muscles:
biceps femoris

Lateral Compartment of the Leg

Fibularis Longus + Fibularis Brevis
Provides lift and forward thrust

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