Terms in this set (53)
A pure substance that can't be separated into simpler substances; made up of atoms; simplest form of matter; contains only one type of particle (atoms)
Examples of elements
Carbon (C); Helium (He); Oxygen (O)
Used to classify elements; elements have a unique set of properties; elements in the same group have the same properties; grouped into catagories
Examples of properties
Boiling point; density; reactivity with acid; flammability.
Three major catagories of elements
Metals; Nonmetals; Metalloids
Properties of metals
Shiny; ductile; good conductors of electric current; malleable; good conductors of thermal energy;examples are Zinc; Aluminum; Copper
Properties of nonmetals
Not malleable; not ductile; not shiny; poor conductors of thermal energy & electric current; more than 1/2 are gases; have complete set of electrons.
Properties of metalloids
Shiny; brittle; hard; good conductor of electric current; about 1/2 of a complete set of electrons in outer energy level.
Examples of metals
Zink; Aluminum; Copper
Examples of nonmetals
Examples of metalloids
A substance in which there is only one type of particle; elements or compounds are pure substances; has definate chemical & physical properties
Composed of 2 or more elements that are chemically combined; 2 or more atoms of elements join together to form molecules; must undergo a chemical change; most substances are compounds, few elements are found alone in nature; partciles of a compound are molecules
Examples of Compounds
Hydrogen peroxide; Calcium carbonate
Properties of compounds
Each compound has a unique set of properties, just like elements; compounds have different properties than the elements they are made of; can be broken down into elements or simplier compounds through chemical change.
Made of 2 or more substances (any combination of elements, compounds or both); NOT chemically combined; no chemical change occurs; no change to substances identify
Examples of mixtures
Salt water; steel; air; cereal; pizza; chicken soup.
What are the 2 types of mixtures?
Homogeneous mixture; Heterogeneous mixture.
Every sample of the mixture is the same.
Ex: soda; tomato soup; salt water.
Not every sample of the mixture is the same.
Ex: chicken soup; pizza; salad dressing.
How do you separate mixtures?
By physical change.
Ex: sorting; filtering; heating; cooling.
A mixture that appears to be a single substance; composed of particles of 2 or more subtsances that are distributed evenly among eachother; the same appearance & properties throughout the mixture; has an even distribution of particles throughout the mixture; homogeneous mixture.
Ex: salt water; soda; kool-aid
The process in which particles of substances separate & spread evenly throughout a mixture.
-Dissolving solids faster: mixing; heating; crushing
-Dissolving gases: Become less soluble in liquids as the temp is raised.
Solute & Solvent
Solute- the substance that is dissolving. (Kool-aid)
Solvent- the substance that the solute is dissolving in. (Water)
The measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a solvent.
(1 1/2 spoonfuls of kool-aid powder)
Solution has more solute. (Powder)
Solution has less solute. (Drink)
Solution has all the solute it can hold.
Solution can hold more solute.
Examples of solutions
Kool-aid; tap water; salt water; soft drinks; gasoline; alloys (solid)
The ability of the solute to dissolve in a solvent at a certain temp & pressure.
A mixture in which particles are large enough to separate themselves from the solvent; particles are not able to dissolve (insoluable); heterogeneous mixture; can be separated by passing it through a filter.
Ex: chicken soup; salad dressing; rocks in a pond; snowglobe
A mixture in which the particles are small enough to mix with the solvent but not large enough to separate out; properties of both solutions & suspensions; can't be separated by filteration.
Ex: jell-o; fog; mayonaise; toothpaste.
What will happen to light with solutions & colloids?
The light will pass undisturbed through a solution but will reflect off a colloid.
What has a definate ratio of components?
The ability of one substance to dissolve in another substance is the______ of the solute.
What is a pure substance that can't be broken down into simplier substances by chemical means?
What can be separated by filteration?
What is an element that is brittle & dull?
What is the substance that dissolves to form a solution?
Which of the following best describes chicken noodle soup?
Which of the following statements describes elements?
A) all of the particles in the same element are different.
B) elements can be broken down into simpler substances.
C) elements have unique sets of properties.
D) elements can't be joined together in chemical reactions.
C) elements have unique sets of properties
A solution that contains a large amount of solute is best described as:
Which of the following substances can be separated into simplier substances only by chemical means?
B) salt water
Which of the following would not increase the rate at which a solid dissolves?
A) decreasing the temp.
B) crushing the solid
D) increasing the temp.
A) decreasing the temp.
In which classification of matter are components chemically combined?
An element that conducts thermal energy well & is easily shaped is a:
D) None of the above
What type of classification is salt water?
A solution because the particles are small & can dissolve.
Ground up chalk inside a beaker of salt water is what type of classification?
A suspension because the particles are too large & spread out on the bottom of the beaker. The particles are too big to dissolve.
When using the funnel to separate the mixture in the lab, what was left in the funnel? What passed through the filter?
Chalk remains were left in the funnel & salt water passed through the filter.
How did we separate chalk & salt water in the lab?
When we took the Petri dish off the hot plate after it boiled, what was left in it? What left the Petri dish during the process?
The salt was left in the Petri dish and the water left the Petri dish during the process.
What were the 2 separation methods we used in the lab?
Filtering & boiling