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25 terms

Sociology Chapter 9

Sociology 2001 Gremillion LSU
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Race
a group of people who share a set of characteristics—typically, but not always, physical ones— and are said to share a common bloodline.
Racisim
the belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal traits.
Scientific Racisim
nineteenth-century theories of race that characterize a period of feverish investigation into the origins, explanations, and classifications of race.
ethnocentrism
the belief that one's own culture or group is superior to others and the tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of one's own.
Ontological Equality
the notion that everyone is created equally in the eyes of god
Social Darwinism
the application of Darwinian ideas to society, namely, the evolutionary "survival of the fittest.
Eugenics
literally meaning "well born," the theory of controlling the fertility of populations to influence inheritable traits passed on from generation to generation
Nativism
movement to protect and preserve indigenous land or culture from the so-called dangerous and polluting effects of new immigrants.
One-drop rule
the belief that "one drop" of black blood makes a person black, a concept that evolved from U.S. laws forbidding miscegenation
Miscgenation
the technical term for multiracial marriage; literally meaning "a mixing of kinds"; it is politically and historically charged—sociologists generally prefer exogamy or outmarriage
Racilization
the formation of a new racial identity, in which new ideological boundaries of difference are drawn around a formerly unnoticed group of people.
Ethncity
one's ethnic quality or affiliation. It is voluntary, self-defined, nonhierarchal, fluid, and multiple, and is based on cultural differences, not physical ones per se.
Symbolic ethnicity
a nationality, not in the sense of carrying the rights and duties of citizenship but identifying with a past or future nationality. For later generations of white ethnics, something not constraining but easily expressed, with no risks of stigma and all the pleasures of feeling like an individual.
Straight-line assimilation
Robert Parks's 1920 universal and linear model for how immigrants assimilate: first they arrive, then they settle in, and finally they achieve full assimilation in a newly homogenous country.
Primordialism
Clifford Geertz's term to explain the persistence of ethnic ties because they are fixed in deeply felt or primordial ties to one's homeland culture.
Pluralism
the presence and engaged coexistence of numerous distinct groups in one society.
Segregation
the legal or social practice of separating people on the basis of their race or ethnicity.
Genocide
The mass killing of a group of people
Subaltern
describes a subordinate, oppressed group of people.
Collective resistance
an organized effort to change a power hierarchy on the part of a less-powerful group in a society.
Prejudice
thoughts and feelings about an ethnic or racial group.
Discrimination
harmful or negative acts (not mere thoughts) against people deemed inferior on the basis of their racial category without regard to their individual merit.
Phrenology
Racial classification based on skull measurements
Gentrification
slums demolished for high value developments, former slum dwellers move to housing projects
Assimilation
Process in which immigrants arrive, settle in, and mimic local behaviors