a group of people who share a set of characteristics—typically, but not always, physical ones— and are said to share a common bloodline.
nineteenth-century theories of race that characterize a period of feverish investigation into the origins, explanations, and classifications of race.
the belief that one's own culture or group is superior to others and the tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of one's own.
the application of Darwinian ideas to society, namely, the evolutionary "survival of the fittest.
literally meaning "well born," the theory of controlling the fertility of populations to influence inheritable traits passed on from generation to generation
movement to protect and preserve indigenous land or culture from the so-called dangerous and polluting effects of new immigrants.
the belief that "one drop" of black blood makes a person black, a concept that evolved from U.S. laws forbidding miscegenation
the technical term for multiracial marriage; literally meaning "a mixing of kinds"; it is politically and historically charged—sociologists generally prefer exogamy or outmarriage
the formation of a new racial identity, in which new ideological boundaries of difference are drawn around a formerly unnoticed group of people.
one's ethnic quality or affiliation. It is voluntary, self-defined, nonhierarchal, fluid, and multiple, and is based on cultural differences, not physical ones per se.
a nationality, not in the sense of carrying the rights and duties of citizenship but identifying with a past or future nationality. For later generations of white ethnics, something not constraining but easily expressed, with no risks of stigma and all the pleasures of feeling like an individual.
Robert Parks's 1920 universal and linear model for how immigrants assimilate: first they arrive, then they settle in, and finally they achieve full assimilation in a newly homogenous country.
Clifford Geertz's term to explain the persistence of ethnic ties because they are fixed in deeply felt or primordial ties to one's homeland culture.
the legal or social practice of separating people on the basis of their race or ethnicity.
an organized effort to change a power hierarchy on the part of a less-powerful group in a society.
harmful or negative acts (not mere thoughts) against people deemed inferior on the basis of their racial category without regard to their individual merit.
slums demolished for high value developments, former slum dwellers move to housing projects