Chapter 13 - Gender Stratification (Sociology)
Terms in this set (56)
the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female and male
the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women
the biological distinctions between females and males (based on reproductive organs)
On average, men are 10% taller, 20% heavier, and 30% stronger
Biological differences between men and women?
women; 80.6 years for women and 75.7 years for men
Life expectancy favors _____.
There are differences, but ____ plays the largest role in male-female differences.
Primary sex characteristics
genitalia as the difference
Secondary sex characteristics
all the other things that differ physically; wider hips for women, fat distribution differences, hormones, men are hairier, men have deeper voices
The Israeli Kibbutz
The kibbutz has gender equality as one of its stated goals; men and women share in both work and decision making. This is evidence that cultures define what is feminine and what is masculine.
Margaret Mead's Research (in depth)
Mead reasoned that if gender is cultural, concepts of the masculine and the feminine should vary. Mead studied three societies in New Guinea. The first group, the Arapesh, had both men and women be cooperative and sensitive, which was "feminine" culture. The second group, the Mundugumor, had both sexes selfish and aggressive, which made them a "masculine" culture. The third group, the Tchambuli, had reversed many notions of gender so that females were dominant and men were submissive.
Culture is the key to gender differences
What was Margaret Mead's conclusion?
George Murdock's research
Studied over 200 pre-industrial societies and concluded that hunting and warfare generally was the task of men, while home-centered tasks like cooking and child care tended to be the task of women.
What it means to be male or female is mostly a creation of society
Basic premise of gender and culture?
a form of social organization in which males dominate females ("rule of fathers")
a form of social organization in which females dominate males ("rule of mothers" / social dominance by women)
the belief that one sex or the other is innately superior (or inferior) to the other
the discrimination against one gender (usually women) by means of actual rules
the costs of sexism
Masculinity encourages men to engage in high-risk behaviors, like using tobacco and alcohol, playing dangerous sports, and driving recklessly. Patriarchy drives men to seek control, which makes masculinity closely linked with violence, stress-related diseases and suicide
personality marked by chronic impatience, driving ambition, competitiveness, and free-floating hostility; matches almost perfectly with the behaviors that our cultures considers masculine
The Type A Personality, and how it relates to masculinity?
The inevitability of patriarchy
Some researchers claim that biological factors, such as difference in hormones and slight differences in brain structure, "wire" the two sexes with different motivations and behaviors (especially aggressiveness in males), which would make patriarchy difficult or even impossible to remove. However, most sociobiologists believe that gender is socially constructed and can be changed.
attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex
newborn infants are either welcomed into the "pink world" of girls or the "blue world" of boys
Infant boys are often handled more roughly (being tossed into the air and bounced on knees), while infant girls are handled more tenderly, with frequent hugs and caresses
the handling of children
It's okay to be a tomboy
Why wouldn't a girl want to be a boy? But, what if a boy acts too much like a girl?
Female: passivity, cooperation, and emotion
Male: independence and action
What traits are associated with each gender?
Boys favor team sports with complex rules and clear objectives. Girls team sports are different because their games teach interpersonal skills and the value of sharing/cooperation
What did Janet Lever discover when observing children's games?
Boys reason according to abstract principles, i.e. "playing by the rules."
Girls, on the other hand, consider morality a matter of responsibility to others.
What did Carol Gilligan's gender based theory of moral reasoning reveal?
White males have center stage.
Minorities of all kinds are locked out.
Women receive roles based on sex appeal.
Role of Media
Eating disorders, Emotional disorders, Ideal Imaging
the "beauty myth"
50%, nicknamed the "pink collared jobs," secreterial /clerical work
Almost ___% of all women work administrative support and service sector jobs
On average, women earn ___ for every dollar earned by men
invisible barrier where women don't get promoted above a certain level status
comments, gestures, and physical contact of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwanted
Gendering of high school classes?
Girls: secretarial, vocational, and food service classes
Boys: woodworking and auto-mechanics
Gendering of college majors?
Men: mathematics and hard sciences
Women: the humanities, fine arts, and the social sciences
___% of all associate and bachelor degrees are earned by women; since 1993, women also earned a majority of postgraduate degrees
only 11.7% of ________ are held by women
seats in world parliaments
15% of ________ were women (2001)
all armed forces personnel
_____ influences our views of women in the military
any group of people with less income, wealth and power
At all levels in the class system, women have:
Less income, less wealth, and less power than men
____ are doubly punished when it comes to minority status
analysis of the interplay of race, class, and gender, often resulting in multiple dimensions of disadvantage
Violence Against Women
-in the home; some women believe that a "rape culture" exists in America
-in public; sexual "whistling" and other forms of harassment
-the workplace; sexual harassment remains problematic for women
-pornography; power issue which may tell men it's okay to control women in a sexual way
Female genital mutilation
the practice, traditional in some cultures, of partially or totally removing the external genitalia of girls and young women for nonmedical reasons. It is illegal in many countries.
comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome
Causes of sexual harassment
-culture encourages men to be sexually assertive and perceive women in sexual terms
-most people in positions of power are men
-under the effect standard, a hostile environment involves different perceptions of the same behavior
sexually explicit material that causes sexual arousal; Potter Stuart, Supreme Court Justice, once described it as "I can't define it, but I know it when I see it"
Structural-functional analysis of gender
Gender functions to organize life; Talcott Parsons said that it gave complementary roles for family units
Social-conflict analysis of gender
Friedrich Engel's: capitalism intensifies male dominance
support of social equality for women and men, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism
the 5 Main Points of Feminism
1.Working to increase equality (importance of political change)
2. Expanding human choice
3. Eliminating gender stratification
4. Ending sexual violence
5. Promoting sexual freedom
free to develop own talents and interests, individualistic; seek equal rights and opportunities for both sexes
pursue collective (male and female) personal liberation; want to change the family form created by capitalism in order to end "domestic slavery" and make housework and child care more equitable between sexes
eliminate the idea of gender; egalitarian, gender-free revolution
Opposition to Feminism
threat to male status and self-respect; growing body of evidence that men and women think and act in different ways