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65 terms

Chem SAT 2

Important terms, principles, concepts
STUDY
PLAY
PV = K
Boyle's Law
V/T = K
Charlse's Law
P/T = K
Gay - Lussac Law
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 = K
Combined Gas Law
22.4L
1 mol of ALL gasses takes up ____ at STP
PV = nRT
Ideal Gass Law
P/RT
Density
KE = 0.5mv^2
Graham's Law of Effusion & Diffusion
Lose electron oxidation
Gain electron reduction
LEO says GER
Compounds are made up of combinations of atoms
All atoms of a given element are alike
All matter is composed of atoms
A chemical reaction involves the rearrangement of atoms
Atomic Theory
HCl
HBr
HI
H2SO4
H3PO4
HNO3
Strong Acids
NaOH
KOH
LiOH
Ca(OH)2
Br(OH)2
Sr(OH)2
Strong Bases
H+ donor
Arrhenius Acid
OH- donor
Arrhenius Base
Proton donor
Bronsted - Lowry Acid
Proton acceptor
Bronsted - Lowry Base
Electron pair acceptor
Lewis Acid
Electron pair donor
Lewis Base
Delta H is less than 0
Exothermic
Delta H is greater than 0
Endothermic
rxn favors product
Keq is greater than 1
rxn favors reactant
Keq is less than 1
favors forward reaction
Q is less than Keq
favors reverse reaction
Q is greater than Keq
Equilibrium
Q = Keq
Group 1A ions, NH4+, N03-, C2H3O2- (100% soluble)
Cl-,Br-, I- (except Ag+, Pb+2)
SO4-2 (Except Pb+2, Ba+2, Sr+2, Ca+2)
Water-soluble
PO4-3, CO3-2 (except group 1A ions, NH4+)
S-2 (except group 1A ions, NH4+, Ba+2, Sr+2, Ca+2)
OH-(except group 1A ions, NH4+, Ba+2, Sr+2, Ca+2)
Water insoluble
OH 1-
Hydroxide
NO2 1-
Nitrite
NO3 1-
Nitrate
ClO 1-
Hypochlorite
ClO2 1-
Chlorite
ClO3 1-
Chlorate
MnO3 1-
Permanganate
C2H3O2 1-
Acetate
CN 1-
Cyanide
CO3 2-
Carbonate
SO3 2-
Sulfite
SO4 2-
Sulfate
CrO4 2-
Chromate
Cr2O7 2-
Dichromate
PO4 3-
Phosphate
NH4 1+
Ammonium
H3O 1+
Hydronium
R-OH
-ol
methanol, ethanol
Alcohol
R-O-R
ether
dimethyl ether
diethyl ether
Ethers
R-CHO
-al
methanal
butanal
Aldehydes
R-COR
-one
propanone
Ketones
R-COOH
-oic acid
acetic acid
formic acid
Carboxylic Acids
R-COOR
- oate, -ate
acetate
methyl propnoate
Esters
R-NH2, R-NH-R
amine
methyl amine, ethyl amine
Amines
R-NHCO-R
amide
acetamide
Amides
emits alpha particle from an atom's necleus
contains two protons and two neutrons (He)
Alpha radiation
increases the atomic number by one by adding one proton
mass stays the same
Beta radiation
neither the atomic number nor te mass number is changed
Gamma radiation
multiple like-charged atomic nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus
Fusion reaction
opposite of fusion reaction
Fission reaction
Oxidaition = Reducing agent
Loss of Electrons
Reduction = Oxidizing agent
Gain of Electrons
Ecell = Ered + Eox
Standard electromotive force
the reaction is spontaneous
Delta G is negative
the reaction is not spontaneous
Delta G is positive
the system is at equilibrium, at Delta H = TDeltaS
Delta G is zero
more order, less random
negative entropy
less order, more random
positive entropy