The tendency to favor European or Western history, culture, and values over other cultures.
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
North American Revolution
The Proclamation of 1763 causes a large rift between superpower and colonists; initially launched by the Declaration of Independence in 1776. "Taxation without representation", the British colonists' circumstance in America, led them to revolt from their homeland and establish themselves as a separate entity from Britain.
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
wealthy white plantation owners and government officials/ ruling class of Haiti under French rule
poor whites in Haiti who held shopkeeping, artisan and small farming positions
the nativist term used during the wars of independence to suggest a natural alliance among all people born in America against the Spaniards and Portuguese
South American revolutionary leader who defeated the Spanish in 1819, was made president of Greater Colombia (now Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador), and helped liberate (1823-1834) Peru and Bolivia.
English nurse remembered for her work during the Crimean War (1820-1910); legitimized the field of nursing, making her an early proponent of the feminist movement
levee en masse
French term for mass conscription (drafting) during the French Revolutionary Wars. Denotes a short term requisition of all able bodied men to defend the nation. It had to be instituted because of the new concept of the democratic citizen as opposed to a royal subject. thus, there were no longer any professional soldiers or mercenaries and armies now relied on volunteers.
Inspired by the American revolution, and in a bankrupt France, conflicts between members of all classes in France became fed up with the monarchy's taxation, high rate of unemployment around them, and lack of bread to go around; many people saw the guillotine. A new calendar and firmer grasp on reason accompanied the end of the monarchy.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
The new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law.
A man that seized power in France after the French Revolution and set out to conquer the world; his plans were to re-established France's New World Empire and knew that Louisiana would provide the base for his military operations in North America.
Toussaint L' Overture led a group of angry ex-slaves against French troops in Santo Domingo, Haiti (which means "mountainous" or "rugged"). The inability of the French to regain possession of the island resulted in the Louisiana Purchase.
Spanish American revolutions
Colonists in Central and South America revolted against their Spanish and Portuguese rulers for independence (1810-1825). Creole intellectuals became familiar with Enlightenment principles, after failed revolutions on their own, the various states had the opportunity for peasant insurrection after Napoleon deposed of the Spanish and Portuguese kings and royal families. After the Hidalgo-Morelos rebellion, Mexico found a more socially controlled independence.
An international movement that between approximately 1780 and 1890 succeeded in condemning slavery as morally repugnant and abolishing it in much of the world; the movement was especially prominent in Britain and the United States.
The doctrine that nations should act independently (rather than collectively) to attain their goals.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A pioneer in the women's suffrage movement, she helped organize the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848.
Vindication of the Rights of Woman
This 1792 book by Mary Wollstonecraft is regarded as one of the earliest feminist works -- it argues that women should receive the same educations provided to men of their social class, and that the two sexes are entitled to the same basic rights.
A popular ideology in France, it holds that women have the role of watching over the futures of their children and gives them the right to intervene in all acts of civil and political life. This ideology was expressed at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848.
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