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43 terms

Human Body Overview

Overview of Body Systems
STUDY
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Anatomy
study of body structure
Physiology
study of the body and its functions
tissue
A group of cells that work together for a common function
organ
A group of tissues that work together for a common function
Organ System
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
Integumentary System
covers and protects the body from infection, heat and moisture loss
Skeletal System
provides support and protection for the body and its organs
Digestive System
Ingest food and breaks it down into smaller unites to be used by the body
Circulatory System
The human body system that contains the heart, blood, and all of the blood vessels. It delivers all the nutrients to the cells and removes wastes
Respiratory System
system responsible for taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide using the lungs
Nervous System
Coordinates body's activities by detecting stimuli and directing the body's responses
Muscular System
Enables body movement
Endocrine System
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Excretory System
the system that removes waste from your body and controls water balance
Lymphatic System
a secondary circulatory system that helps the body fight pathogens and maintain its fluid balance
Immune System
Defends the body against infections
Reproductive System
system of organs involved in producing offspring
Epithelial Tissue
a body tissue that covers the surfaces of the body, inside and out
Connective Tissue
Groups of cells that support the body and hold it together
Nervous Tissue
tissue that receives messages from the body's external and internal environment, analyzes the data, and directs the response
neuron
a cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses
skeletal muscle
Voluntary, striated muscle that moves bones, works in pairs and is attached to bones by tendons
Cardiac Muscle
Striated, involuntary muscle found only in the heart
Smooth Muscle
involuntary, non-striated muscle found mainly in organs
Homeostasis
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
hormone
a chemical that serves as a messenger. Each hormone is secreted by a gland and travels to one or more target organs, where it brings about responses.
interstitial fluid
fluid in the spaces between cells
epidermis
the outer layer of the skin covering the exterior body surface of vertebrates
melanin
a pigment that gives the skin its color
dermis
the deep vascular inner layer of the skin
hypodermis
Subcutaneous tissue layer below the dermis
keratin
hard protein material found in the epidermis, hair, and nails
vertebra
individual segment of the backbone; encloses and protects the spinal cord
cartilage
a connective tissue that is more flexible than bone and that protects the ends of bones and keeps them from rubbing together
red marrow
produces blood cells
yellow marrow
bone marrow that is yellow with fat
ligament
strong connective tissue that holds bones together in movable joints
tendon
strong connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
muscle fiber
an elongated contractile cell that forms the muscles of the body
myofibril
one of many contractile filaments that make up a striated muscle fiber
sarcomere
contractile unit of muscle
actin
protein that mainly makes up the thin filaments in striations in skeletal muscle cells
myosin
protein that makes up the thick filaments in striations in skeletal muscle cells