atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
Specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and transmitting electrical impulses between them. His is pronounced "hiss".
atrioventricular node (AV node)
Specialized tissue in the wall between the atria. Electrical impulses pass from the paacemaker (SA node) through the AV node and the atrioventricular bundle or bundle of His toward the ventricles.
Smallest blood vessel. materials pass to and from the bloodstream through the thin capillary walls.
Gas (waste) released by the body cells, transported via veins to the heart, and then to the lungs for exhalation.
Blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.
Record of the electricity flowing through the heart. The electricity is represented by waves or deflections called P, QRS, or T.
normal sinus rhythm
Heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node with a resting rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.
Gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells.
pacemaker (sinoatrial node)
Specialized nervous tissue in the right atrium that begins the heartbeat. An artificial cardiac pacemaker is an electronic apparatus implanted in the chest to stimulate heart muscle that is weak and not functioning.
One of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
septum (plural: septa)
Partition or wall dividing a cavity; such as between the right and left atria (interatrial septum) and right and left ventricles (interventricular septum).
Flow of blood from body tissue to the heart and then from the heart back to body tissue.
Located between the right atrium and the right ventricle; it has three leaflets, or cusps.
Structure in veins or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in only one direction.
Thin-walled vessel that carries blood from body tissues and lungs back to the heart. Veins contain valves to prevent blackflow of blood.
vena cava (plural: venae cavae)
Largest vein in the body. The superior and inferior venae cavae return blood to the right atrium of the heart.
What 3 examples of arrhythmias does the book list?
bradycardia and heart block (atrioventricular block), flutter, and fibrillation.
bradycardia and heart block (atrioventricular block)
Failure of proper conduction of impulses from the SA node through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
Very rapid, random, inefficient, and irregular contractions of the heart (350 beats or more per minute).
What are the 4 examples of congenital heart disease that the book lists?
coarctation of the aorta (CoA), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), septal defects, and tetralogy of Fallot.
patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
Passageway (ductus arteriosus) between the aorta and the pulmonary artery remains open (patent) after birth.
Small holes in the wall between the atria (atrial septal defects) or the ventricles (ventricular septal defects).
tetralogy of Fallot
Congenital malformation involving four distinct heart defects. The four defects are: Pulmonary artery stenosis (Pulmonary artery is narrow or obstructed), Ventricular septal defect (Large hole between two ventricles lets venous blood pass from the right to the left ventricle and out to the aorta without oxygenation), Shift of the aorta to the right (Aorta overrides the interventricular septum. Oxygen-poor blood passes from the right ventricle to the aorta), and Hypertrophy of the right ventricle (Myocardium works harder to pump blood through a narrowed pulmonary artery.)
acute coronary syndromes (ACSs)
Unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack), which are consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries.
peripheral arterial disease (PAD)
Blockage of arteries carrying blood to the legs, arms, kidneys, and other organs.
Chest pain resulting from myocardial ischemia. Stable angina occurs predictably with exertion; unstable angina is chest pain that occurs more often and with less exertion.
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor
Antihypertensive drug that blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, causing blood vessels to dilate. It prevents heart attacks, CHF, stroke and death.
Listening for sounds in blood vessels or other body structures, typically using a stethoscope.
Drug used to treat angina, hypertension, and arrhythmias. It blocks the action of epinephrine (adrenaline) at receptor sites on cells, slowing the heartbeat and reducing the workload on the heart.
Device enabling ventricles to beat together (in synchrony) so that more blood is pumped out of the hear heart.
calcium channel blocker
Drug used to treat angina and hypertension. It dilates blood vessels by blocking the influx of calcium into muscle cells lining vessels.
Pain, tension, and weakness in a leg after walking has begun, but absence of pain at rest.
Drugs used in the treatment of angina. They dilate blood vessels, increasing blood flow and oxygen to myocardial tissue.
Uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias, such as premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)
pericardial friction rub
Scraping or grating noise heard on auscultation of the heart; suggestive of pericarditis.
Clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on diseased heart valves.
Lipoproteins (combinations of fat and protein) are physically separated and measured in a blood sample.
computed tomography angiography (CTA)
Three-dimensional x-ray images of the heart and coronary arteries using computed tomography (CT) (64-slice CT scanner)
digital subtraction angiography (DSA)
Video equipment and a computer produce x-ray images of blood vessels
electron beam computed tomography (EBCT or EBT)
Electron beams and CT identify calcium deposits in and around coronary arteries to diagnose early CAD
positron emission tomography (PET) scan
Images show blood flow and myocardial function following uptake of radioactive glucose.
technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scan
Technetium Tc 99m sestamibi injected intravenously is taken up in the cardiac tissue, where it is detected by scanning
thallium 201 scan
Concentration of radioactive thallium is measured to give information about blood supply to the heart muscle.
Exercise tolerance test (ETT) determines the heart's response to physical exertion (stress).
Brief delivery of radiofrequency or cryosurgery to destroy areas of heart tissue that may be causing arrhythmias.
coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)
Arteries and veins are anastomosed to coronary arteries to detour around blockages.
Brief discharges of electricity are applied across the chest to stop dysrrhythmias (ventricular fibrillation).
Heart-lung machine diverts blood from the heart and lungs while the heart is repaired.
percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)
Balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery; stents are put in place.
Drugs to dissolve clots are injected into the bloodstream of patients with coronary thrombosis.
COLLECTIONS OF PLAQUE THAT PROTRUDE INTO THE LUMEN (OPENING) OF AN ARTERY, WEAKENING THE MUSCLE LINING
the most common form of arteriosclerosis. Caused by the formation of yellowish plaques of chlolesterol on the inner walls of arteries.
abnormal thickening of heart muscle, usually in the left ventricle. The ventricle has to work harder to pump blood. The condition may be inherited or develop over time because of high blood pressure or aging. Often the cause is unknown (idiopathic).
Results from failure of the heart in its pumping action. Shock is circulatory failure associated with inadequate delivery of oxygen and nutrients to body tissues.
the presence of an abnormal amount of cholesterol in the cells and plasma of the blood